ارزیابی سیستم های مختلف تغذیه آلی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد، کمیت و کیفیت اسانس گیاه دارویی گشنیز (Coriandrum sativum L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارمند جهاد کشاورزی ایلام

2 استادیار دانشگاه ایلام

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: گشنیز یکی از مهم ترین گیاهان دارویی بوده که به علت کیفیت بالای اسانس، علاوه بر مصارف غذایی جنبه درمانی نیز دارد. کشاورزی پایدار با رعایت اصول اکولوژیک، می تواند ضمن ایجاد توازن در محیط زیست، کارآیی استفاده از منابع را افزایش دهد و زمینۀ بهره وری طولانی تری را برای انسان فراهم آورد. کاربرد کودهای آلی با هدف جایگزینی یا کاهش قابل ملاحظه در کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی، موجب افزایش کیفیت و عملکرد در تولید پایدار گیاهان زراعی می شود. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی ارزیابی سیستم های مختلف تغذیه آلی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد و ترکیبات اسانس گیاه دارویی گشنیز انجام شد.
مواد و روش ها: این آزمایش به صورت مزرعه ای در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با هشت تیمار و سه تکرار در سال 1394 در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی شهرستان ایلام اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل 10 و 20 تن کود گاوی در هکتار، 5 و 10 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار، 5 تن کود گاوی همراه با 5/2 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار، 10 تن کود گاوی همراه با 5 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار، کود شیمیایی (تنها 75 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) و شاهد (بدون کاربرد کود) بودند. صفات اندازه گیری شده شامل عملکرد دانه، درصد و عملکرد اسانس و ترکیبات مختلف اسانس بود. به‌منظور تعیین میزان اسانس از روش تقطیر با آب با دستگاه کلونجر اسانس گیری شد، اجزای اسانس توسط دستگاه کروماتوگرافی گازی متصل به طیف سنج جرمی (GC/MS)، انجام گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد بذر (3257/7 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، درصد اسانس (0/154درصد) و عملکرد اسانس (23/75کیلوگرم در هکتار)، محتوی لینالول (62/61 درصد) و محتوی ژرانیل استات (21/9درصد) به ترتیب در تیمارهای کاربرد 10 تن کود گاوی، 5 تن ورمی کمپوست و 10 تن کود گاوی همراه با 5 تن ورمی کمپوست به دست آمد. همچنین بیشترین محتوی آلفاپینن (11/45درصد) و گاماترپینن (7/12درصد) در اسانس در تیمار کاربرد 10 تن ورمی کمپوست به دست آمد.
نتیجه گیری: ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﮐﻠﯽ مدیریت تغذیه تلفیقی گیاه دارویی گشنیز اﺛﺮات ﻗﺎﺑﻞﺗﻮﺟﻬﯽ ﺑﺮ ﺷﺎﺧﺺﻫﺎی ﮐﻤﯽ و ﮐﯿﻔﯽ اﯾﻦ ﮔﯿﺎه داشت. بیشترین عملکردهای بذر و اسانس با کاربرد 10 تن کود گاوی و بیشترین ترکیبات اسانس با کاربرد ورمی کمپوست به دست آمد. با توجه به نتایج، سیستم های مختلف تغذیه آلی می تواند جایگزین بخش عمده ای از کود شیمیایی اوره در زراعت گیاه دارویی گشنیز شده و گامی در جهت کشاورزی پایدار و حفظ محیط زیست برداشته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of organic and chemical different nutrition systems on the yield, quantity and quality of essential oil of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • azita yari 1
  • alireza tab 2
چکیده [English]

Background and Purpose: Coriander is one the most important cultivated medicinal plants, because of high quality essential oil and its uses as food and herbal medicine. Sustainable agriculture with ecological principles can increase the efficiency of resource utilization and provide longer productivity for humans while creating a balance in the environment. Using organic fertilizers to replace or considerably reduce the use of chemical fertilizers leads to an increase in the quality and performance of the sustainable production of crops. This research is conducted in order to study the effects of organic and chemical different nutrition systems on yield and essential oil contents of coriander.
Materials and Methods: This field experiment was done based on a randomized complete block (RCBD) design with 8 treatments and 3 replications in the agricultural education and research center of the Ilam county during 2015. Treatments include 10 and 20 t ha-1 of cow manure, 5 and 10 t ha-1 of vermicomposting, 5 t ha-1 of cow manure plus 2.5 t ha-1 of vermicomposting, 5 t ha-1 of cow manure plus 5 t ha-1 of vermicomposting, chemical fertilizers (only 75 kg N ha-1), and the control (without fertilizer application). Measured variables included seed yield, essential oil yield and percentage, and the essential oil components of the essence. In order to determine the amount of essential oil, the process of essence extraction is done through the Clevenger apparatus by distillation; and the essential oil components are determined by (GC/MS).
Results: The results indicated that the highest seed yield (3257.7 kg ha-1), essential oil percentage (0.154%) essential oil yield (23.75 kg ha-1), linalool content (62.61%), and geranyl acetate content in (21.9%) occur in 10 tons of cow manure, 5 tons of vermicomposting, and 10 tons of cow manure plus 5 tons of vermicomposting, respectively. Furthermore, the highest percentages of α-Pinene (11.45%) and γ-terpinene content (7.12%) were obtained related to 10 tons of vermicomposting.
Conclusion: The results showed that integrated nutrient management of Coriander as a medicinal plant has significant effects on quantitative and qualitative indicators. On the whole, the highest seed and essential oil yield are obtained using 10 tons of cow manure, and the highest essential oil yield compounds are obtained using vermicomposting. According to to the results, organic different nutrition systems can replace the bulk of chemical urea fertilizer in cultivation of coriander as a medicinal plant. It’s a step towards sustainable agriculture and environmental protection.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essential oil
  • Geranyl acetate
  • Linalool
  • Organic Manure
  • Urea
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