ارزیابی اثر سایکوسل و سالیسیلیک اسید بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک و اسانس گیاه دارویی بادرشبویه (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) تحت شرایط تنش خشکی و نرمال

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه زنجان

2 استاد دانشگاه

3 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه زنجان

4 عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات اموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی زنجان

چکیده

مقدمه: خشکی یکی از مهمترین تنش‌های محیطی است که مورفولوژی، فیزیولوژی و بیوشیمی گیاه را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد و اثرات عمده‌ای بر تولید کشاورزی می‌گذارد. کاربرد ترکیبات محرک رشد (سالیسیلیک اسید) و بازدارنده رشد (سایکوسل) در دامنه‌ای از فرایندهای مختلف رشدی و در افزایش تحمل به خشکی در گیاهان اثر گذارند. به منظور بررسی اثر تنظیم کننده‌های رشدی، سایکوسل و سالیسیلیک اسید بر تغییرات فیزیولوژیک و تغییرات اسانس گیاه بادرشبو در شرایط تنش خشکی، در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان انجام گرفت
مواد و روش‌: آزمایش به صورت اسپیلیت پلات با دو عامل دو عامل آبیاری (آبیاری نرمال و تنش کم آبی) و تنظیم کننده-های رشدی (شاهد، سایکوسل 600، سایکوسل 1200، اسید سالیسیلیک 800 و اسید سالیسیلیک 1600 میکرو مولار) با چهار تکرار در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد. تنش خشکی به صورت پیوسته با قطع کامل آب در بازه زمانی قبل از گلدهی تا انتهای آزمایش اعمال گردید. اعمال سطوح مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک (800 و 1600 میکرو مولار)، سایکوسل (600 و 1200 میکرو مولار) و شاهد (بدون محلول پاشی) به صورت یک بار محلول پاشی دو روز قبل از اعمال تنش خشکی انجام شد.
یافته‌ها: اثر متقابل رژیم رطوبتی در تنظیم کننده رشد در سال برای صفات تعرق، هدایت روزنه‌ای، فتوسنتز، هدایت مزوفیلی و کارآیی مصرف آب فتوسنتزی معنی‌دار بود اما برای صفات محتوای نسبی آب، درصد اسانس، عملکرد اسانس و غلظت CO2 زیر روزنه‌ای معنی‌دار نبود. مقایسه میانگین اثر متقابل تنظیم کننده رشد در رطوبت برای صفت عملکرد اسانس نشان داد که در شرایط تنش رطوبتی اختلافی بین سطوح شاهده نمی‌شود ولی در شرایط نرمال اختلاف وجود دارد، بطوری‌که سالیسیلیک (1600 میکرو مولار) بیشترین مقدار عملکرد اسانس را دارا بود. همبستگی منفی و معنی‌دار بین درصد اسانس با سرعت تعرق، هدایت روزنه‌ای و سرعت فتوسنتز و رابطه مثبت و معنی‌دار با صفت کارایی مصرف آب فتوسنتزی وجود دارد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش نشان داد که تنش خشکی سبب کاهش صفات فیزیولوژیک شامل، محتوای کلروفیل، سرعت فتوسنتز، هدایت روزنه‌ای و سرعت تعرق می‌شود. همچنین با اعمال تنش خشکی وضعیت آب در گیاه دچار تغییرات معنی-داری می‌گردد و محتوای نسبی آب برگ کاهش پیدا می‌کند. تنش خشکی موجب کاهش درصد و عملکرد اسانس شد بطور‌ی‌که حتی استفاده از تنظیم کننده‌های رشدی که در این آزمایش مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند نتوانست این کاهش را جبران کنند. پس می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که در شرایط تنش خشکی به علت کاهش کلروفیل و سبزینگی گیاه و همچنین کاهش سطح برگ میزان اسانس گیاه بادرشبویه کاهش پیدا می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the effects of cycocel and salicylic acid on some physiological characteristic and essential oil under normal and drought conditions in medical plant Dragonhed (Dracocephalum moldavica L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Jalalvand 1
  • babak andalibi 2
  • afshin tavakoli 3
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses which impact on morphological, physiological and biochemical process of plant and have major effects on agricultural productions. Application of plant growth regulators like salicylic acid as growth stimulator and cycocel as growth inhibitor effect on different growth process and influence on increases of drought tolerance. In order to study the effect of growth regulators, cycocel and salicylic acid on physiological changes and essential oil at dragonhead in drought stress condition in the research field of Zanjan University.
Material and method: A split plot experiment with two factors irrigation (normal and water stress) and growth regulators treatment (control, 600 and 1200 µm cycocel and 800 and 1600 µm salicylic acid) was conducted in based of completely randomized block design with four replications. Two moisture regimes (normal and drought stress) were main factors. In drought stress, plants were irrigated before flowering stage and after that irrigation was stopped in drought stress treatment until end of experiment. Different levels of salicylic acid (800 and 1600 µm) and cycocel (600 and 1200 µm) and control were sub factors which was applied once, two days before drought treatment.
Findings: Interaction of moisture in growth regulators in year for treats transpiration, stomatal conduct, photosynthesis, mesophyll conduct and photosynthesis water use efficiency was significant, but treats of relative water content, essential oil percent, essential oil yield and sub-stomatal CO2 concentration was not significant. Mean compression of interaction of growth regulators in moisture for essential oil yield indicated that there is no significant differences between growth regulators treatment in drought stress, but in normal condition it had significant impact, so that the highest essential oil yield obtained at 1600 µm salicylic acid. A negative and significant correlation between essential oil percent with transpiration, stomatal conduct and photosynthesis rate and also exist a positive and significant correlation with photosynthesis water use efficiency.
Conclusion: Results of this experiment showed that drought stress reduced physiological traits include, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate and also it significantly changed plant water status and decreased relative water content. Drought stress decreased essential oil present and essential oil yield. So that even the use of growth regulators that used in this experiment were unable to compensate for this decrease. So it can be concluded that in drought stress conditions due to decreased chlorophyll and greenness plant and also reduced leaf area in dragonhead the essential oil is reduced

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mesophyll conductance
  • Photosynthesis
  • Essence yield
  • Stomatal conductance
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