تاثیر بذر و پیش‌تیمار آن بر عملکرد و صفات دو رقم پیاز خوراکی (Allium cepa L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استاد گروه زراعت ، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت ، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: این پژوهش به منظور بررسی تاثیر پرایمینگ و اندازۀ بذر بر عملکرد بیولوژیکی، صفات رویشی و فنولوژی ژنوتیپهای پیاز خوراکی انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر پرایمینگ و اندازۀ بذر بر عملکرد بیولوژیکی و صفات رویشی و فنولوژی ژنوتیپهای پیاز خوراکی این پژوهش در دو سال زراعی (1391 و 1392) به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل پرایمینگ در چهار سطح (هیدرو پرایمینگ با آب مقطر اسموپرایمینگ با نیترات پتاسیم، پرایمینگ با استفاده از مادۀ فولامین و شاهد) اندازۀ بذر در سه سطح (ریز، متوسط و درشت) و ارقام در دو سطح (قرمزآذرشهر و زرقان) بود.ویژگی‌های عملکرد بیولوژیک، تعداد، طول، سطح و شاخص سطح برگ، نسبت سوخ‌دهی، نسبت برگ، درصد بولتینگ، شمار روز تا سوخ‌دهی، رسیدگی فیزیولوژیکی و برداشت مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که اثر پیش تیمار و اندازۀ بذر از نظر تمام ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی از لحاظ آماری تفاوت معنی‌دار نشان داد. پرایمینگ بذر موجب بهبود عملکرد بیولوژیکی و صفات رویشی و فنولوژی گردید به طوری که بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیکی، سطح برگ، شاخص سطح برگ و شاخص سوخ‌دهی به ترتیب 98/105تن در هکتار 77/123 سانتی‌مترمربع،25/8 و 99/4 به پرایمینگ با فولامین تعلق داشت و کمترین آنها از تیمار شاهد به‌دست آمد. همچنین مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیکی، سطح برگ، شاخص سطح برگ وشاخص سوخ‌دهی به ترتیب 33/100 تن در هکتار 38/119 سانتی‌مترمربع، 96/7 و 98/4 از بذرهای درشت و کمترین آنها از بذر ریز به‌دست آمد. اثر سودمند پرایمینگ و بذر درشت بر عملکرد بیولوژیکی و صفات رویشی و فنولوژی به سبز شدن و استقرار سریع گیاهچه ها و در نهایت استفاده بهتر از نور، رطوبت خاک و عناصر غذایی به وسیله گیاهان حاصل از بذرهای درشت و بذرهای پرایمینگ شده نسبت داده شد. لذا جهت کشت پیاز استفاده ازبذرهای درشت و پرایمینگ با اسید آمینه فولامین در شرایط مشابه آزمایش قابل توصیه است.
نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش پرایمینگ بذر باعث بهبود عملکرد بیولوژیکی و صفات رویشی و فنولوژی گردید. تیمار بذر با استفاده از اسید آمینه فولامین 2% نسبت به سایر روش‌های پیش‌تیمار و اندازه درشت نسبت به سایر اندازه‌های بذر باعث بهبود ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی گردید. بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیکی، سطح و شاخص سطح برگ و شاخص سوخ‌دهی ازبذرهای درشت و پرایمینگ با ماده فلامین به دست آمد. بنابر این اهمیت پرایمینگ و درجه بندی بذر در این مطالعه آشکار شد، به طوری که برای تضمین عملکرد بیولوژیکی و بهبود صفات رویشی و فنولوژی در پیاز بهتر است ازبذرهای درشت و پرایمینگ با ماده فولامین (2%) استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Pre-treatment and Seed Size on Yield and Characteristics of Two Onion (Allium ce-pa L.) Cultivar

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Izadkhan 1
  • M. Tajbakhash 2
  • B. Pasban 3
  • J. Jalilian 4
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: The main objective of this work was to study the effect of priming and seed size on biological yield, growth and phonological characteristics of onion genotypes.
Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effect of priming and seed size on biological yield, growth and phonological characteristics of onion genotypes a factorial field experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2012 and 2013 cropping season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of East Azarbayjan, Iran. The experimental treatments included priming (at four levels: hydro priming, osmopriming (in %2 KNO3), priming with falomin amino acid (in 2%) and control (without priming), seed size (at three levels: small, medium and large) and cultivars (at two levels: Red Azarshahr and Zargun). Following charac-teristics such biological yield, number of leave, leave length, leaf area, leaf area index, bulbing ratio, leaf ratio, bolting percent, number of days to bulbing, physiological maturity and number of day to harvest were studied.
Results: Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that all characteristics significantly were affected by priming and seed size. Results showed that seed priming and seed size improved biological yield, growth and phonological characteristics. The highest biological yield, leaf area, leaf area index, bulbing ratio, were obtained from plant that primed with folamine 105.98 (T/ha), 123.77cm2, 8.25 and 4.99, respectively and the lowest were achieved from control plants. Also mean comparison indicated that the higher values of biologic yield, leaf area, leaf area Index, bulbing ratio were obtained from large seed size 100.33 (T/ha), 119.38cm2, 7.96 and 4.98, respectively and the lower of it were found to small seed size. Nevertheless, seed priming and seed size improved biological yield, growth and phonological characteristics onion cultivars were attributed to rapid seedling emergence and establishment, and consequently the optimum use of light, soil moisture and nutrients by the plants developed from the primed seeds and seed size.
Conclusion: According to the results and discussion mentioned above seed priming treatments improved biological yield, growth and phonological characteristics as compared to the unprimed. Among the treatments, seed priming with Falomin Amino Acid 2% was more effective than the po-tassium nitrite 2% and hydropriming. Large seed size significantly increased the biological yield, growth and phonological characteristics. Accordingly, the importance of seed priming and seed grading were obvious in this study, so seed priming with Falomin Amino Acid 2% and large seed size should be used for onion planting in order to insure high biological yield, to improve growth and phonological characteristics of onion.Therefore priming with Falomin Amino Acid 2% and large seed are recommended of onion planting for the places with the same environmental conditions our experiment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bolting
  • Bulbing index
  • Folamine
  • Leaf area index
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