اثر سطوح کود دامی و تراکم بوته بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه، عملکرد برگ و ایندیگو وسمه

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

مقدمه
وسمه (Indigofera tinctoria L.) گیاهی فراموش‌شده و دارویی از خانواده بقولات است. این گیاه یکساله، دوساله و چندساله است، ولی اغلب به صورت یکساله کاشته می‌شود (6). ایندیگو که در صنعت برای رنگزائی استفاده می‌شود، از برگ‌های وسمه استخراج می‌گردد. این ماده رنگ آبی دارد. وقتی دو گروه ایندوکسیل به طور خود به خود در شرایط حضور اکسیژن هستند، یک مولکول ایندیگو تشکیل می-گردد (14).

مواد و روش‌ها
این آزمایش با هدف بررسی اثر سطوح کود دامی و تراکم بوته بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گیاه فراموش‌شده و صنعتی وسمه به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در دو سال زراعی 93-1392 و 94-1393 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل پنج سطح کود دامی از نوع کود گاوی پوسیده (صفر، 10، 20، 30 و 40 تن در هکتار) و چهار تراکم بوته (10، 20، 30 و 40 بوته در متر مربع) بود. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل ارتفاع بوته، قطر تاج‌پوشش، اجزای عملکرد (شامل تعداد شاخه جانبی در بوته، تعداد نیام در بوته، تعداد بذر در بوته و وزن بذر در بوته)، عملکرد برگ، عملکرد نیام، عملکرد ساقه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و محتوی و عملکرد ایندیگو وسمه بودند.

یافته‌ها
نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح کود دامی و تراکم بر ارتفاع بوته، قطر تاج‌پوشش، تعداد شاخه جانبی در بوته، تعداد نیام در بوته، تعداد بذر در بوته، وزن بذر در بوته، عملکرد برگ، عملکرد ساقه، عملکرد نیام، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و عملکرد ایندیگو وسمه معنی‌دار (01/0≥p) بود. بالاترین قطر تاج‌پوشش مربوط به کاربرد 30 تن کود دامی (3/88 سانتی‌متر) بود و کمترین میزان برای شاهد (6/16 سانتی‌متر) به دست آمد. بالاترین قطر تاج‌پوشش وسمه برای تراکم 30 بوته در متر مربع با 56 سانتی‌متر مشاهده شد. بیشترین عملکرد برگ در شرایط مصرف 30 تن کود دامی در هکتار با 69/250 گرم بر متر مربع بدست آمد. بالاترین عملکرد برگ مربوط به تراکم 30 بوته در متر مربع با 37/224 گرم بر متر مربع بود. بالاترین عملکرد ایندیگو برای مصرف 30 تن در هکتار (01/2 گرم بر متر مربع) حاصل گردید. با افزایش تراکم بوته از 10 به 30 بوته در متر مربع، عملکرد ایندیگو 16 درصد افزایش یافت.

نتیجه‌گیری
افزایش مصرف کود دامی از صفر تا 30 تن در هکتار عملکرد کمی و کیفی وسمه افزایش یافت. با افزایش تراکم بوته از 10 به 30 بوته در متر مربع، رشد، اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد برگ، ساقه، نیام و ایندیگو وسمه به طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of cow manure levels and plant densities on yield and seed yield components, leaf and indigo yields of true indigo

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Khoramdel 1
  • P. Rezvani 2
  • M. Hooshmand 3
  • F. Moalem 3
چکیده [English]

Introduction
True indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L.) is a forgotten crop and medicinal plant from Fabaceae family. The plant is annual, biennial and perennial, but it is cultivated as an annual plant (6). A material called Indigo is extracted from the leaves of true indigo which is extensively used in industries for dying objects. It is blue in color. Indigo is formed when two indoxyl groups combine spontaneously in the presence of oxygen to form an indigo molecule (14).

Materials and methods
In order to study the effects of cow manure and plant density on quantitative and qualitative criteria of true indigo as a forgotten and industrial crop, an experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Experimental treatments were five cow manure levels (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1) and four plant densities (10, 20, 30 and 40 plants.m-2). Studied traits were plant height, canopy diameter, yield components (such as number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and seed weight per plant), leaf yield, pod yield, stem yield, biological yield, indigo content and indigo yield of true indigo.

Results and discussion
The results indicated that the effects of cow manure and plant density were significant (p≤0.01) on plant height, canopy diameter, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, leaf yield, stem yield, pod yield, biological yield and indigo yield of true indigo. The highest canopy diameter was observed in 30 ton cow manure per ha (88.3 cm) and the lowest was shown for control (16.6 cm). The maximum canopy diameter was related to 30 plants.m-2 with 56 cm. The highest leaf yield was obtained in 30 ton cow manure per ha with 250.69 g.m-2. The maximum leaf yield was related to 30 plants.m-2 with 224.37 g.m-2. The highest indigo yield was achieved in 30 ton cow manure per ha (2.01 g.m-2) and by increasing plant density form 10 to 30 plants.m-2, indigo yield was enhanced up to 16%.

Conclusion
By increasing cow manure application from zero to 30 t.ha-1 quantitative and qualitative yield of true indigo was enhanced. By enhancing plant density from 10 to 30 plants.m-2 growth, yield components, leaf yield, stem yield, pod yield and yield indigo of true indigo were improved.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fabaceae
  • Indigo yield
  • Neglected crop
  • Industrial crop
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