بهبود عملکرد و خصوصیات کیفی چای (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) با بهینه‌سازی کاربرد کود نیتروژن و آب آبیاری

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 محقق مرکز تحقیقات چای کشور

2 محقق

چکیده

سابفه و هدف: شاخساره‌های گیاه چای قسمت قابل برداشت (محصول) بوته‌های چای بوده و به‌عنوان عوامل کلیدی تعیین کننده‌ی کیفیت چای در نظر گرفته می‌شوند که حداقل به میزان 70 درصد در ساختار کیفیت نوشابه‌ی چای، موثر هستند. آب و کود نیتروژنی مهم‌ترین نهاده‌های کشاورزی در تولید برگ‌ها و شاخساره‌های چای هستند و در تعیین میزان کیفیت و بازارپسندی آن نقش مهمی بر عهده دارند. کیفیت چای نیز به سطوح نیتروژن، پلی‌فنل‌ها و کافیین اجزای تشکیل دهنده‌ی شاخساره‌های چای به شدت وابسته است. در این پژوهش تاثیر سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژنی و آب آبیاری بر عملکرد و برخی از شاخص‌های کیفی شاخساره‌های چای برای اولین مرتبه در ایستگاه تحقیقات چای فشالم فومن در استان گیلان بررسی شد.



مواد و روش‌ها: به‌منظور بررسی و بهینه‌سازی کاربرد کود نیتروژنی و آب آبیاری بر عملکرد و برخی از شاخص‌های کیفی برگ سبز چای، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده نواری در قالب طرح پایه‌ی بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی (با استفاده از روش آبیاری بارانی تک شاخه‌ای) به مدت سه سال (1387 تا 1389) در ایستگاه تحقیقات چای فشالم فومن در استان گیلان انجام شد. تیمارها شامل شش سطح کود نیتروژنی صفر، 100، 200، 300 ، 400 و 500 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و پنج سطح آب آبیاری بودند. برنامه‌ریزی آبیاری با استفاده از پایش رطوبت در عمق توسعه‌ی ریشه به‌صورت هفته‌ای دو بار و با استفاده از روش انعکاس‌سنجی زمانی و معادله بیلان رطوبتی انجام شد. در این آزمایش، وزن برگ سبز برداشت شده در هر کرت اندازه‌گیری و با استفاده از ضریب 5/22 درصد به عملکرد چای فرآوری شده تبدیل گردید. هم‌چنین عوامل موثر بر کیفیت چای نظیر مقدار کل نیتروژن موجود در برگ سوم شاخساره‌ی فعال و برخی از خصوصیات کیفی نظیر درصد کافیین، درصد مواد جامد محلول در آب (عصاره آبی) و درصد پلی‌فنل‌های موجود در شاخساره‌های برداشت‌شده در شاخص سه چین برداشت (فصول بهار، تابستان و پاییز) اندازه‌گیری شد.



یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که افزایش کاربرد کود نیتروژنی در دو تقسیط (اواخر اردیبهشت و اواسط تیر) باعث کاهش سطح کیفی چای و انجام آبیاری کامل طی ماه‌های خشک (تیر و مرداد) موجب افزایش عملکرد چای می‌شود. مصرف کود نیتروژنی به میزان 300 تا 350 کیلوگرم در هکتار در شرایط آبیاری کامل (3424 مترمکعب آب آبیاری) منجر به افزایش دو برابری عملکرد نسبت به شرایط بدون آبیاری گردید. در عوض، افزایش مقدار کود نیتروژنی باعث کاهش میزان پلی‌فنل‌ها و مواد جامد محلول در آب و افزایش میزان کافیین و نیتروژن موجود در شاخساره‌های چای گردید. تاثیر آبیاری بر بهبود وضعیت کیفی شاخساره‌های چای فقط در فصل تابستان مشاهده شد.



نتیجه‌گیری: به‌منظور حفظ تعادل بین عملکرد و کیفیت چای تولیدی و با در نظر گرفتن ملاحظات اقتصادی و زیست محیطی، برای شرایط آبیاری کامل، کاربرد 200 تا 250 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار و در شرایط دیم کاربرد 100 تا 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimizing the use of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation water to improve the tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) yield and quality

نویسندگان [English]

  • kourosh majd salimi 1
  • shahrzad shaigan 2
1 Researcher of TEA RESEARCH INSTITUTE
2 researcher
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: Harvested Shoots of tea plant determine the quality of tea as a key factor and affect at least 70% of the quality of tea drink. Water and nitrogen fertilizer are the most important agricultural inputs in the production of tea leaves and shoots, which plays an important role in determining the quality and its marketability. Tea quality depends on nitrogen level , polyphenols and caffeine content of shoots. In this study for the first time in Feshalam tea research station in Guilan province, the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigated water on yield and quality indicators of shoots were surveyed.

Materials and methods: In order to evaluate and optimize the use of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigated water on yield and some quality index of tea leaves, split block experiment on randomized complete block design (line-source irrigation technique) was conducted for 3 years (2008-2010) in Feshalam tea research station in Guilan province. Treatments consist of six levels of nitrogen zero, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N ha-1 and five levels of irrigation water. Irrigation schedul by monitoring moisture in root zone on basis of TDR and water balance equation was implemented twice weekly. In this experiment, weight of harvested green leaves in each plot was measured which 22.5% was converted to processed tea. Factors affecting the quality of tea, such as the total amount of nitrogen in the third leaf of active shoots and some quality characteristics such as caffeine percentage, soluble solids in water (aqueous extract) and polyphenols percentage in harvested shoots in three flash (spring , summer and autumn) were also measured.

Results: The results showed that, increased use of nitrogen fertilizer in two splits (late May and mid-July) reduced the quality of tea and full irrigation during the dry months (July and August) increased the tea yield. Appling 300 to 350 kg N ha-1 under full irrigation (3424 m-3 of irrigation water) leading to a doubling performance as compared to no-irrigation conditions. Instead, with increasing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer reduced the amount of polyphenols and soluble solids in water and increased the amount of caffeine and nitrogen in the tea shoots. The impact of irrigation on improving the quality of tea shoots were observed only in summer.

Conclusion: In order to maintain a balance between yield and quality of tea production as well as economic and environmental considerations, for full irrigation, use of 200 to 250 kg N ha-1 and in rainfed condition , 100 to 200 kg N ha-1 is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water stress
  • Nitrogen fertilizer
  • Tea quality
  • Tea yield
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