عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: There are a lot of medicinal plants which they're found as wild in plains and hillsides habitat. The plants have high importance, Since they're used to feed and cure the diseases in the world. So, the researchers of the field have focused on doing research on native species of the country. Bitter apple The scientific name Citrullus Colocynthis L. is from the family of cucurbitaceae, Herbaceaous, lying or rising stem and fiber-covered. The plant grows greatly in south of Iran especially in province of Sistan and Balouchestan.
Materials and methods: The research was performed in the form of a nested plan completely random with four replication. The fruit of the plant was collected from its 8 growing areas in 4 cities (Iranshahr, Nikshahr, Sarbaz and Zabol) at the stage of investigation. It was recorded the most important habitat conditions of the areas (such as: height, latitude and longitude). It was measured the physiological features of the seed from the collected samples (oil percent, ash percent, Ca, Fe, N, P, K, Mg, Zn elements, protein and carbohydrates). It was provided the Ethanol and Butanol extract of the fruit and they were analyzed chemically by Gc and Gc/MS machines. The obtained data were compared by Duncan comparative test at five percent level.
Results: the results represented that the habitat conditions lead to significant difference in amount of the seed ash percent, Ca, N, K, Zn elements and seed soluble carbohydrate at one percent. As there was the most amount of seed ash and carbohydrate in the city of Zabol , the most amount of Zn, C, K elements in the city of Iran-shahar. The results represented that there wasn't significant difference between cities and the areas inside the cities in the amount of seed phosphor, protein and oil percent. Also, the results represented that Fe element available in the seed of the plant had significant difference at five percent level and the areas at one percent level. It was observed the most amount in Iran-shahar and Zabol cities. Also, Mg element of the seed had significant difference in cities and it wasn't observed significant difference in the areas of the city. The results of Ethanol extract of the fruit represented that there were cucurbitacins A, B, C, D, E, L, and two compositions of colocynthis and colocyntheis in the fruit with various amounts which the habitat conditions led to significant difference at one percent. Cucurbitacin E is considered the most important cucurbitacin of the plant which the city of Nik-shahr showed the highest amount. The results of Gc/MS of Butanol extract of the plant fruit identified compositions like alcohols, ketones, Epoxy compounds and hydrocarbons. Which they're accounted part of active biological compounds, the compounds features are probably to help using traditional medicine.
Conclusion: Difference in seed physiological features and chemical compounds of the plant fruit between cities and areas inside the cities can be due to difference in ecologic features of the area like temperature, humidity, the sea surface height, sort of soil and also food elements affected on each other, actually there was a certain height surface in each studying cities and areas that it influences on seed physiological features and chemical compounds of the plant fruit, besides providing suitable growth conditions and it requires to study more on the province and other areas with various weather, Bitter apple is belong to important medicinal plants which grows in poor soil, dry and tropical conditions. So it is proper for this province.