ارزیابی اثر همزیستی قارچ پیریفورموسپورا ایندیکا و کاربرد پاکلوبوترازول بر ویژگی‌های رشدی گیاه ریحان (.Ocimum basilicum L) در واکنش به تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 پژوهشکده ژنتیک و زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی طبرستان، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: شوری آب و خاک از مشکلات جدی و فزآینده در سطح جهان می‌باشد به‌طوری‌که بخش وسیعی از اراضی کشور ما نیز با این مشکل مواجه است. امروزه استفاده از ریزجانداران همزیست با ریشه گیاهان مانند قارچ پیریفورموسپورا ایندیکا از جمله راهکارهایی است که جهت بهبود رشد و افزایش عملکرد گیاهان زراعی در شرایط نامناسب محیطی مانند شوری آب و خاک به کار گرفته می‌شود. علاوه بر این، امروزه استفاده از موادی مانند پاکلوبوترازول که توانایی تنظیم رشد و تخفیف تنش‌های محیطی را دارند نیز افزایش یافته است. بنابراین، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی جداگانه و همزمان این عوامل بر ویژگی‌های رشد گیاه دارویی ریحان در شرایط بروز تنش شوری طراحی و اجرا شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این مطالعه به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری در سال 1394 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل دو سطح همزیستی (عدم تلقیح به عنوان شاهد و تلقیح با قارچ)، سه سطح پاکلوبوترازول (صفر، 20 و 40 میلی گرم در لیتر) و چهار سطح شوری آب آبیاری (صفر، سه، شش و نه دسی‌زیمنس بر متر NaCl) بودند. صفاتی نظیر وزن تر و خشک برگ، اندام هوایی و ریشه، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد برگ، سطح برگ، طول ریشه، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، محتوای کلروفیل برگ، درصد و عملکرد اسانس، میزان پراکسیداسیون چربی‌ها و پراکسید هیدروژن و فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانی سوپراکسید دیسموتاز (SOD)، کاتالاز (CAT) و آسکوربات پراکسیداز (APX) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد همزیستی قارچ پیریفورموسپورا ایندیکا توانست وزن تر و خشک برگ، اندام هوایی و ریشه را در شرایط تنش به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش دهد. کاربرد پاکلوبوترازول گرچه در شرایط عادی موجب کاهش وزن تر و خشک برگ و بوته شد اما در شرایط تنش توانست وزن تر و خشک برگ و بوته را بهبود بخشد. همچنین، تلقیح قارچی ارتفاع، تعداد برگ، سطح برگ، طول ریشه، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، محتوای کلروفیل برگ، درصد و عملکرد اسانس گیاه ریحان را در شرایط تنش شوری به‌طور قابل‌توجهی افزایش داد هرچند بیشترین اثر مثبت قارچ در تیمارهای شوری متوسط و بالا مشاهده شد. اما در این شرایط برگ‌پاشی پاکلوبوترازول تنها بر صفات سطح برگ، طول ریشه، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، محتوای کلروفیل برگ و عملکرد اسانس تأثیر معنی‌دار داشت. همزیستی با قارچ شبه‌میکوریز و کاربرد پاکلوبوترازول، همچنین، میزان پراکسیداسیون لیپید غشاء را به هنگام تنش کاهش داد. تلقیح قارچی و برگ‌پاشی پاکلوبوترازول، همچنین، موجب افزایش محتوای پراکسید هیدروژن و بالا رفتن قابل توجه فعالیت آنزیم-های آنتی‌اکسیدانی سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، کاتالاز و آسکوربات پراکسیداز در شرایط تنش شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: به‌طور کلی، همزیستی قارچ شبه میکوریز P. indica با گیاه ریحان توانست با افزایش تحمل به شوری تا حدود زیادی ویژگی‌های رشدی آن را بهبود بخشد. همچنین کاربرد پاکلوبوترازول در تخفیف آثار نامطلوب تنش شوری موثر بود، گرچه این اثربخشی به اندازه تأثیر همزیستی با قارچ نبود. کاربرد همزمان دو عامل مورد مطالعه نیز بر وزن تر و خشک برگ و ریشه، ارتفاع و عملکرد اسانس ریحان تأثیر معنی‌دار داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of the effect of Piriformospora indica symbiosis and paclobutrazol application on growth parameters in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in response to salinity stress

چکیده [English]

Background: water and soil salinity are the serious and growing problem in the world, a large part of our country is also faced with this problem. Nowadays, application of symbiont microorganisms such as mycorrhiza-like fungi, P. indica, is one of the strategies using for improvement of growth and yield in unpleasant environmental conditions such as water and soil salinity. But beside the application of these microorganisms, today the use of materials such as paclobutrazol has also increased, which has the ability to regulate the growth and decrease the negative effects of environmental stresses. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these factors on the properties of Basil in saline condition as well as compare the efficiency of them.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University in 2015. Treatments included two levels of coexistence (control and inoculated with the fungus), three levels of paclobutrazol (0, 20 and 40 mg.L-1) and four salinity levels (0, 3, 6 and 9 dS.m-1 NaCl). We study leaf, aerial parts and root fresh and dry weight, height, number of leaves, leaf area, root length, leaf relative water content, leaf chlorophyll content, essential oil content and essential oil yield, lipids peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide content, antioxidant enzymes activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX).
Results: The findings of this study indicate that inoculation significantly increased leaf, aerial parts and root fresh and dry weight in stress condition. Paclobutrazol application although reduced leaf and plant fresh and dry weight in normal condition, it could improve them in stress condition. Symbiosis also considerably increased height, number of leaves, leaf area, root length, leaf relative water content, leaf chlorophyll content, and essential oil content of basil in saline condition, as the most positive effects of fungi was observed at medium and high salinity levels. However, in similar situation paclobutrazol foliar spray had significant effect on only leaf area, root length, leaf relative water content, leaf chlorophyll content and essential oil yield. P. indica symbiosis and paclobutrazol application also redused membrane lipid peroxidation as a result of stress. However, the decrease in fungal treatments was more notable than paclobutrazol treatments. Inoculation and paclobutrazol treatments also increased considerably the content of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity under stress.
Conclusion: It seems that, symbiotic relationship of basil with fungi P. indica can improve basil growth properties by increase salt tolerance in such condition. Paclobutrazol application is also effective in mitigating the adverse effects of stress, although not as powerful as fungi inoculation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Essential oil
  • Mycorrhiza-like fungi
  • Paclobutrazol
  • Salinity
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