ارزیابی همزیستی سه گونه‌ی قارچ میکوریزا بر ویژگی‌های بیوشیمیایی چمن‌های اگروپیرون (Agropyron elongatum) و پوآی چند‌ساله (Poa pratensis) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشگاه گیلان - دانشکده علوم کشاورزی - گروه علوم باغبانی

3 گروه زراعت دانشگاه گیلان

4 گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: چمن‌ها مهمترین گیاهان پوششی با قدرت پا خوری بالا هستند که به ندرت می‌توان جایگزینی برای آن‌ها در فضای سبز پیدا کرد. محدودیت منابع آب آبیاری یکی از چالش‌های اصلی در مدیریت چمن‌ها بخصوص در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک است. یکی از راه‌های کاهش اثرات سوء تنش خشکی، همزیستی قارچ‌ میکوریزا با ریشه‌ی گیاه است.
مواد و روش‌ها: به منظور ارزیابی اثر همزیستی سه گونه قارچ میکوریزا (clarum Glomus، Glomus fasiculatum، mosseae Glomus و بدون کاربرد قارچ) و تنش‌ خشکی (با سه سطح رطوبتی 80 ، 55 و 30 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) بر ویژگی‌های بیوشیمیایی چمن‌های‌ پوآی چندساله (Poa pratensis) و اگروپیرون (Agropyron elongatum)، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی طی سال‌های 94- 1393 در گلخانه‌ی تحقیقاتی دانشکده‌ی علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان انجام شد. چمن‌ها 60 روز پس از کاشت تحت تنش خشکی قرار گرفتند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل فعالیت آنزیم‌های آسکوربات پراکسیداز، پراکسیداز، کاتالاز و میزان مالون‌دی‌آلدهید، پرولین و پروتئین کل برگ و درصد کلنی‌سازی ریشه بود.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین درصد کلنی‌سازی ریشه را چمن اگروپیرون با گونه‌ی گلوموس موسه‌آ و کمترین درصد را پوآی چندساله با گونه‌ی گلوموس کلاروم داشتند. تنش خشکی درصد کلنی‌سازی گونه‌ی گلوموس موسه‌آ را با هر دو گونه‌ی چمن کاهش ولی درصد کلنی‌سازی گونه‌های گلوموس کلاروم و گلوموس فسیکولاتوم را با ریشه‌ی چمن اگروپیرون و پوآی چند‌ساله افزایش داد. تنش خشکی سبب افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان، میزان پرولین، مالون‌دی‌آلدهید و پروتئین کل برگ چمن‌های مورد آزمایش گردید. قارچ میکوریزا بویژه در شرایط تنش خشکی فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان میزان پرولین و پروتئین را افزایش ولی میزان مالون-دی‌آلدهید را کاهش داد. بین گونه‌های قارچ و گونه‌های چمن به لحاظ تاثیر بر صفات ذکر شده اختلاف معنی‌دار مشاهده گردید، به-طوری‌که در چمن اگروپیرون، گونه گلوموس موسه‌آ و در چمن پو‌آی چندساله، گونه گلوموس کلاروم سبب بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم آسکوربات پراکسیداز گردیدند. در بالاترین سطح تنش خشکی چمن‌های همزیست با گلوموس موسه‌آ بیشترین فعالیت پراکسیداز را داشتند ولی در تنش ملایم، بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز در برگ چمن‌های همزیست با قارچ گلوموس فسیکولاتوم مشاهده شد. در شرایط تنش ملایم چمن‌های اگروپیرون همزیست با قارچ گلوموس موسه‌آ بیشترین فعالیت کاتالاز را دارا بودند در‌حالی‌که در بالاترین سطح تنش بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز در برگ چمن‌های همزیست با قارچ گلوموس فسیکولاتوم مشاهده گردید ولی در چمن پوآی-چندساله در هر دو شرایط تنش شدید و ملایم بیشترین فعالیت کاتالاز مربوط به چمن‌هایی بود که با قارچ میکوریزا تلقیح نشده بودند. گونه‌ی گلوموس موسه‌آ سبب گردید که میزان پرولین برگ چمن در بالاترین سطح تنش خشکی (30 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) بیش از 130 درصد نسبت به شرایط بدون قارچ افزایش ولی میزان مالون‌دی‌آلدهید بیش از 32 درصد کاهش یابد و در تنش متوسط این نسبت به ترتیب70 درصد افزایش و 25 درصد کاهش بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: تاثیر گونه‌های قارچ میکوریزا بر فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدان در برگ چمن‌های مورد مطالعه تحت تنش خشکی متفاوت بود ولی در مجموع میکوریزا توانست با افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان و میزان پرولین، سبب کاهش میزان پراکسیداسیون لیپید غشاء سلول‌های برگ چمن‌‌های مورد مطالعه گردد. که از این نظر گونه‌ی گلوموس موسه‌آ موثرتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evalution the symbiosis of three mycorrhizae fungi species on biochemical characteristics of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) and Agropyron (Agropyron elongatum) turfgrasses under drought stress conditions

نویسنده [English]

  • Hedayat Zakizadeh 2
2 Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Turfgrasses are the most important ground covers with high dining leg strength that rarely replacement can be found for them in landscape. Limitation of water resources especially in arid and semi-arid regions is one of the main challenges in turf management. Mycorrhizae symbiosis with plants is one of the ways to reduce the adverse effects of drought stress.

Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effects of three species of mycorrhizae fungi (G. clarum, G. fasiculatum, G. mosseae and Non fungi) and drought stress (80, 55 and 30 percent of field capacity) on the biochemical characteristics of turfgrass species, Poa pratensis and Agropyron elongatum, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was carried out in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan in 2015. Following the establishment of turfgrass that lasted about 60 days, drought stress was applied. The traits of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde, proline, total protein of leaves and root colonization percent were studied.

Results: According to the results Agropyron showed the highest root colonization with G. mosseae while Poa showed the lowest colonization with G. clarum. Drought stress reduced the root colonization of Agropyron and poa with G. mosseae but increased the root colonization of them with G. clarum and G. fasiculatum. Drought stress increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, proline, malondialdehyde and total protein in the leaves of studied grasses. Mycorrhizal fungi, especially under drought stress increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content, but decreased the malondialdehyde content. There were significant differences between fungi species and grass species in terms of impact on the above mentioned traits. So that Agropyron with G. mosseae but Poa with G. clarum showed the highest leaf APX activity. In the highest level of stress grasses symbiotic with G. mosseae had the highest POD activity while under mild stress condition highest enzyme activity was observed in leaves of grasses symbiotic with G. fasiculatum. Grass response to mycorrhizal fungi species at different levels of drought stress on CAT activity was different. In moderate stress conditions Agropyron symbiotic with G. mosseae had a highest CAT activity, while in the highest level of stress Agropyron symbiotic with G. fasiculatum had a highest enzyme activity but in Poa in both moderate and severe stress the highest enzyme activity was related to grasses that had not been inoculated with mycorrhizae fungi. G. mosseae caused the proline content of grass leaves at the highest level of drought stress more than 130 percent compared to without mycorrhizae situation increased, but malondialdehyde more than 32 percent decreased. In moderate stress this rate was respectively 70 percent increase and 25 percent decrease.

Conclusion: The effect of mycorrhizal fungi species on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of studied turfgrasses under drought stress was different However, in general, mycorrhiza symbiosis with increases of antioxidant activity and proline could reduce the amount of lipid peroxidation in leaves of studied turfgrasses. In this regards the G. mosseae was more effective.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ascorbate peroxidase
  • catalase
  • Proline
  • Protein
  • malondialdehyde
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