اثر سدیم‌نیتروپروساید بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گیاه دارویی مرزه (Satureja khuzestanica) تحت رژیم‌های کم آبیاری

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: خشکی از مهمترین عوامل محدودکننده رشد گیاهان در سرتاسر جهان و شایع‌ترین تنش محیطی است. امروزه کاربرد تنظیم‌کننده‌های رشد به‌منظور کاهش اثرات منفی ناشی از تنش‌های مختلف مطرح شده است. سدیم‌نیتروپروساید از جمله این مواد می‌باشد که موجب مقاومت گیاه به تنش‌های محیطی زیستی (زنده) و غیرزیستی (غیر‌زنده) می‌شود. مرزه گیاهی یکساله از خانواده نعناعیان می‌باشد. بدلیل خواص آنتی‌اکسیدانی بالا و وجود ترکیبات پلی فنلی فراوان در این گیاه ارزشمند، آزمایشی با هدف بررسی اثر رژیم‌های آبیاری و کاربرد سدیم‌نیتروپروساید ( SNP) بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گیاه دارویی مرزه انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش در سال زراعی 95-94 با آرایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های تصادفی، در سه تکرار به‌صورت گلدانی انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش در چهار سطح رژیم‌های آبیاری شامل مقادیر 40، 60، 80 و 100 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و سه سطح سدیم‌نیتروپروساید شامل صفر، 50 و 100 میلی‌مولار لحاظ گردید. صفات مورد ‌ارزیابی عبارت از پرولین، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، درصد اسانس، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، فنل کل، کلروفیل a، b و کل بودند. پس از عملیات کاشت، برداشت و اندازه‌گیری عملکرد رشد، کلروفیل به‌روش آرنون، پرولین به‌روش بیتز، فنل کل به‌وسیله و روش فولین‌سیوکالتو و اسانس به کمک دستگاه کلونجر و روش تقطیر با آب اندازه‌گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: افزایش سطوح رژیم آبیاری سبب کاهش معنی‌دار کلروفیل a، b و کل گردید. همچنین اثر رژیم آبیاری در بالاترین سطح منجر‌به کاهش 8/18 درصدی محتوای نسبی آب برگ نسبت به شاهد گردید. میزان پرولین، درصد اسانس، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و فنل کل در اثر رژیم آبیاری افزایش یافت و در کمترین مقدار آبیاری در ظرفیت زراعی (40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) با 41/1، 63/0، 07/20 و 02/0 درصد افزایش به‌ترتیب برای میزان پرولین، درصد اسانس، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و فنل کل، به حداکثر خود رسیدند. تیمار SNP نیز بر تمامی صفات مورد بررسی اثر معنی‌داری داشت و این تأثیر در 100 میلی‌مولار به حداکثر خود رسید. اثر متقابل رژیم آبیاری و SNP به‌جز برای صفات وزن تازه و خشک گیاه و فنل کل برای سایر صفات مورد بررسی معنی‌دار بود. در شرایط رژیم آبیاری، محلول‌پاشی با 100 میلی‌مولار SNP موجب افزایش 23/1، 24/0 و 48/4 درصدی به‌ترتیب در صفات پرولین، درصد اسانس و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی نسبت به عدم محلول‌پاشی گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که اعمال رژیم‌های آبیاری به‌طور معنی‌داری میزان کلروفیل a، b و کل و درصد محتوای آب نسبی برگ گیاه را کاهش داد. در مقابل میزان پرولین، درصد اسانس، فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و فنل کل افزایش یافت. با این حال تیمار سدیم‌نیتروپروساید از گیاهان مرزه در برابر تنش خشکی محافظت کرد و باعث کاهش خسارات ناشی از تنش خشکی گردید. به‌طور‌کلی نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد می‌توان اعمال سدیم‌نیتروپروساید را به‌صورت محلول‌پاشی جهت کاهش اثرات سوء رژیم‌های آبیاری توصیه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of sodium nitroprusside on physiological, biochemical and essence characteristics of savory (Satureja khuzestanica) under deficit water regimes

چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Drought stress is one of the most important factors that it limites plant growth around of the world and it’s the most common environmental stress. Nowadays, the application of plant growth regulators has discussed for decreasing the negative effect of different stresses. Among these materials are Sodium nitroprusside that causes plant resistance for biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Satureja khuzestanica is an annual medicinal plant from Lamiaceae a rich source of polyphenolic components and antioxidant activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate effect of sodium nitro prusside (SNP) application on physiological, biochemical and essential oil characteristics of Savory under deficit water regimes.
Materials and methods: This pot experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with three replications at Gorgan University Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2016. The treatments were consisted of four levels for irrigation regimes (40 percent field capacity, 60 percent field capacity, 80 percent field capacity, 100 percent field capacity (control)) and three levels for Sodium nitroprusside (without sodium nitroprusside (control), 50 sodium nitroprusside, 100 mM). In this study, a, b and total chlorophyll content, leaf water ratio, proline, antioxidant activity with Baits, total phenol with folin siu caltive, essence percent, essence yield with Clevenger and distillation and were measured.
Results: The results showed that increasing water deficit, a, b and total chlorophyll content were decreased. Also, leaf water ratio was decreased (18.8 percent) with increasing water deficit to 40 percent field capacity. But, proline, antioxidant activity, total phenol, percentage of essence, essence yield were increased with decreasing to 1.41,0.63,20,07 and 0.02 percent, respectively with increasing water deficit to 40 percent FC. SNP had significant effects on the all of studied characteristic that this effects was maximum in 100mM. Interaction effects of Irrigation regime and SNP had significant effects on all of characteristic except of total phenol. The most value of proline, essential oil percent and antioxidant activity were obtained to 1.23, 0.24 and 4.48 percent in SNP 100 mM and 40 percent FC.
Conclusion: Generally, the results showed that by increasing water deficit, a, b and total chlorophyll content and leaf water ratio were decreased, in return, antioxidant activity, total phenol, percentage of essence were increased. However SNP treatment protected Savory from water deficit stress and decreased its damages. Therefore application of SNP for spraying can be recommended to decreased
adverse effects of water deficit In case of further experiments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant activity
  • Nitric acid
  • Proline
  • total phenol
  • water deficit stress
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