عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Rose (Rosa spp.) belongs to the Rosaceae family and is one of the most important genus of medicinal plants. Flowers and fruits of rose genus due to possess flavonoids, vitamins and antioxidant activity have many importance in food and medicinal industries. The geographic distribution of this species was in Europe, Turkey, Iran, Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq. Iran is one of the main biodiversity centers of this valuable medicinal plant. This study was undertaken in order to examine the phytochemical and antioxidant diversity of rose flower organ in 27 genotypes of Northwest of Iran.
Materials and methods: Three provinces of the Northwest (West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Kurdistan), which is the origin of many roses species in Iran were chosen for sampling. After species identification, extraction of samples was conducted using ultrasonic in excess of 120 hertz (Elmasonic( device. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total carotenoid and chlorophyll and Antioxidant capacity were determined by using Folin–Ciocalteu assays, aluminum chloride method, Lichtentaler method,FRAP and DPPH respectively. All the data obtained in a completely randomized design with three replications and were analyzed using SAS software and mean comparisons were done according to the LSD test.
Results: The analysis of results showed that genotypes had significant difference (p≤ 0.01) in phytochemical properties. Total phenolic content was in its highest value (104.02 mg GAE/g DW) in the flowers of G9 (R. canina), whereas the lowest level (19.78 mg GAE/g DW) was found in the flowers of G26 (R. hemisphaerica). Total flavonoid content was in its highest value (9.32 mg /g DW) in the flowers of G14 (R. canina), whereas the lowest level (1.89 mg /g DW) was found in the flowers of G26 (R. hemisphaerica). The highest level of Chlorophyll a and b and total carotenoid (670.18 μg/g DW) content were found in G20 (R. canina), G25 (R. canina) and G1 (R. canina) respectively. The highest level of antioxidant capacity in DPPH (R. canina) and FRAP (R. canina) assays were found in G19 (75.60 %) and G1 (242.63 µmol Fe ++/g DW) respectively.
Conclusion: Results showed that the Northwest of Iran has a wide diversity of rose different species that can be considered in breeding programs. These results showed that phytochemical characteristics of different species of rosewidely correlated with genotype and location type and are promising sources of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds beneficial to be used in the food or the pharmaceutical industries.