اثرات محلول پاشی سدیم نیترو پروساید بر فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانت و عملکرد ماده موثره ماریتیغال تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد آزمایشگاه فیزیولوژی گیاهی و تکنولوژی بذر دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان

2 دانشگاه تبریز - دانشکده کشاورزی - گروه اکوفیزیولوژی گیاهی

3 عضو هیئت علمی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان

4 عضو هیئت علمی گروه علو محیط زیست دانشکده علوم دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: ماریتیغال گیاه دارویی است که برای تولید سیلیمارین و روغن کشت می‌شود. سیلیمارین ترکیبی از فلاونولیگنان‌های مختلف می‌باشد که برای درمان بیماری‌های کبدی و بسیاری از بیماری‌های دیگر مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد. تنش‌ خشکی در این گیاه ضمن کاهش عملکرد دانه، عملکرد متابولیت‌های ثانویه را نیز تحت تاثیر قرار می‌دهد. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثرات سدیم نیتروپروساید بر فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدانت و عملکرد ماده موثره ماریتیغال در شرایط کمبود آب انجام شد.
مواد و روشها: آزمایش به صورت کرت‌های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زنجان در سال 1392 انجام گرفت. در این آزمایش سدیم نیتروپروساید (SNP) در سه سطح صفر، 100 و 200 میکرومول در لیتر بعنوان فاکتور اصلی، تنش خشکی در سه سطح شاهد، قطع آبیاری از مرحله ساقه‌روی و قطع آبیاری از مرحله گرده‌افشانی بعنوان فاکتور فرعی و دو ژنوتیپ ماریتیغال (مجاری و ساری) بعنوان فاکتور فرعی‌فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. صفات اندازه‌گیری شامل فعالیت آنزیم‌های کاتالاز، پراکسیداز و آسکوربات پراکسیداز، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، پایداری غشاء سلولی، درصد و عملکرد سیلیمارین و عملکرد دانه بود.
یافته‌ها: تنش خشکی از مرحله ساقه‌روی محتوای نسبی آب برگ و از هر دو مرحله قطع آبیاری پایداری غشاء سلولی را کاهش داد، در صورتیکه محلول‌پاشی با سدیم نیترو پروساید از کاهش بیشتر محتوای نسبی آب برگ در شرایط تنش جلوگیری و پایداری غشاء سلولی را بهبود داد. قطع آبیاری از مرحله ساقه‌روی فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز را در هر دو ژنوتیپ بطور معنی‌داری افزایش داد، در حالیکه فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز و آسکوربات پراکسیداز را در رقم مجاری کاهش و در اکوتیپ ساری فعالیت آسکوربات پراکسیداز را افزایش و بر فعالیت پراکسیداز تاثیری نداشت. کاربرد SNP فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدانت را در رقم مجاری بطور معنی‌داری بوِیژه در مرحله تنش ساقه‌روی افزایش داد، اما در اکوتیپ ساری فقط در تنش گرده‌افشانی سبب افزایش فعالیت آنزیم آسکوربات پراکسیداز گردید در صورتیکه در تنش ساقه‌روی سبب کاهش معنی‌دار آنزیم کاتالاز شد و تاثیری نیز بر فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز نداشت. با افزایش شدت تنش محتوای سیلیمارین دانه بطور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت، ولی تاثیری بر عملکرد سیلیمارین نداشت. کاربرد 100 میکرومولار SNP اثر افزایشی بر درصد سیلیمارین دانه داشت و نیز عملکرد سیلیمارین را در هر دو مرحله قطع آبیاری نسبت به گیاهانی که فقط تحت تیمار خشکی بودند بهبود داد. همچنین عملکرد دانه تحت تاثیر تنش بطور معنی‌داری کاهش پیدا نمود در حالی که این کاهش با محلول‌پاشی 100 میکرومولار SNP در مرحله تنش ساقه‌روی و گرده‌افشانی جبران گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که محلول‌پاشی گیاهان با SNP بویژه در سطح 100 میکرومولار با افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدانت و بهبود کارایی مصرف آب و تروایی غشاء سلولی از افت عملکرد دانه در شرایط کمبود آب جلوگیری و درصد و عملکرد ماده موثره ماریتیغال را افزایش می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Exogenous Sodium nitroprusside application on the antioxidant enzymes activity and active substance yield in milk thistle under drought stress

نویسنده [English]

  • Esmaeil Zangani 1
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives:
Milk thistle is a medicinal plant that is cultivated for the production of silymarin and oil. Silymarin composed of a different flavonolignans that have been used in treating liver disorders and other diseases. Although grain yield in the milk thistle decreases under drought stress, it may influenced on secondary metabolites yield. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sodium nitroprusside on the enzymes antioxidant activity and active substance yield in milk thistle in the water deficit conditions.
Materials and Methods:
The experiment was conducted in split-split plot restriction in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Foliar spray with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at three levels of 0,100 and 200 µmol l–1 was considered as the main factor, while drought stress at three levels of control, withholding of irrigation at stem elongation and withholding of irrigation at anthesis stage were regarded as secondary factors. Finally two genotypes of milk thistle (Hungarian and Sari) comprised the sub-sub factors. Measured traits were catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase enzymes activity, RWC, cell membrane stability, silymarin yield and content and grain yield.
Results:
Drought stress decreased leaf relative water content since stem elongation and cell membrane stability during both times of withholding irrigation. Moreover, exogenous of sodium nitroprusside prevented from a further reduction RWC in stress conditions and improved cell membrane stability. Withholding irrigation enhanced catalase enzyme activity during stem elongation stage in both genotypes, While, drought stress in the Hungarian cultivar peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased and in Sari ecotype ascorbate peroxidase activity increased and had no effect on the peroxidase activity. Application of SNP in in the Hungarian cultivar particularly at the time of stem elongation stress significantly increased enzymes antioxidant activity. However in Sari ecotype, only led to a significant increase of ascorbate peroxidase activity during anthesis stress while, it caused a significant decrease in catalase in the stage of stem elongation stress and did not have any effect on peroxidase activity.
By increasing the intensity of stress, silymarin content increased, but had no influence on the silymarin yield. Application of up to 100 µM SNP had a increasing effect in silymarin content and improved silymarin yield in both withholding irrigation stages than plants which were solely under drought stress and did not receive SNP. Also drought stress significantly decreased grain yield while this decrease was compensated by exogenous application of 100 µM SNP in the stages of stem elongation and anthesis stress.
Conclusion:
The results showed that SNP foliar application, particularly at the level of 100 µM increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and improved water use efficiency and stability of cell membrane. Hence prevented grain yield drop in water deficit conditions and enhanced milk thistle's active substance yield and content.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Milk thistle
  • nitric oxide
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Silymarin
  • Water stress
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