مطالعه ویژگی‌های زراعی، عملکرد گل و درصد اینولین ریشه کاسنی (Cichorium intibus) تحت تاثیر حاصلخیزکننده‌های خاک و تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه زابل

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه زابل

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: کاسنی از خانواده آستراسه و دارای برگ‌های آبی و یا صورتی است و گونه‌ی گیاهی با ارزش که سرشار از فلاونوئید و اینولین است و ریشه آن بعنوان تنها منبع ریشه‌ای تولید اینولین است. تنش خشکی یکی از مهمترین عوامل محدود کننده عملکرد در دنیا به شمار می‌رود. به منظور بررسی ویژگی‌های زراعی، عملکرد گل و درصد اینولین ریشه کاسنی تحت تیمارهای مختلف کود زیستی و تنش خشکی پژوهش حاضر انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: مطالعه حاضر به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 94- 1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل انجام شد. عامل اصلی تنش خشکی شامل: آبیاری بر اساس 90، 70 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی در کل دوره رشد و عامل فرعی کودهای زیستی شامل: شاهد (عدم کاربرد کود)، نیتروکسین، ریزموجودات مفید (Effective Microorganism=EM) و نانو کلات پتاسیم بودند. ویژگی‌های از قبیل ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ساقه در بوته، تعداد گل در بوته، عملکرد گل، وزن خشک و تر ریشه، درصد نیتروژن برگ و درصد اینولین مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای اعمال تنش خشکی از دستگاه TDR استفاده شد. پس از جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، برای تجزیه و تحلیل آماری از نرم‌افزار SAS استفاده شد و مقایسه میانگین‌ها به کمک آزمون دانکن در سطح احتمال پنج درصد انجام گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که تاثیر برهمکنش تنش خشکی و کودهای زیستی، بر کلیه ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی به جز ارتفاع بوته معنی‌دار شد. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش شدت تنش ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ساقه و گل در بوته، عملکرد گل، وزن ‌تر و خشک ریشه، درصد اینولین ریشه و درصد نیتروژن برگ کاهش یافت. کاربرد کودهای زیستی نیز سبب افزایش ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی گردید. بیشترین ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ساقه و گل در بوته، عملکرد گل، وزن تر و خشک ریشه و درصد اینولین ریشه از آبیاری کامل، همراه با کاربرد کود EM به‌دست آمد. کاربرد کود زیستی EM در تیمارهای آبیاری پس از 70 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی به‌ترتیب رتبه‌های دوم و سوم درصد اینولین را نشان دادند. با افزایش شدت تنش از شاهد به تیمار آبیاری پس از 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، درصد نیتروژن برگ کاهش یافت به‌طوری‌که بیشترین درصد نیتروژن از آبیاری پس از 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی توام با کاربرد نیتروکسین و کمترین آن از اعمال تنش شدید خشکی و عدم کاربرد کود حاصل شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: در این آزمایش بهترین تیمار برای بیشترین وزن تر، خشک و درصد اینولین ریشه، کاربرد ریز موجودات(EM) در شرایط 90 درصد ظرفیت زراعی بود. به‌طور کلی می‌توان بیان داشت که استفاده از کودهای زیستی می‌تواند باعث تعدیل اثر تنش خشکی در گیاه دارویی کاسنی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of agronomical characteristics, flower yield and root inulin percentage of chicory (Chicorium intybus L.) under soil fertilizers and drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • null null 1
  • null null 2
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Chicory is belongs to the Asteraceae family the leaves colors are blue or pink and valuable medicinal specie that is rich of felavonoeds and inulin and root is only source of inulin production. Drought stress is as an important limitation for yield in the world. Thus, the present study with the aim of evaluating the agronomical traits and root inulin percentage of chicory under different bio-fertilizer treatments and drought stress was carried out.
Materials and methods: The study pereset a split plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Institute (Chah nimeh), University of Zabol, Iran in 2014-2015. The main plots were there irrigation levels (irrigation after 50 (control), 70 and 90% of field capacity) and sub plots were four fertilizer rates (without fertilizer (control), inoculation of nitroxin, effective microorganism fertilizer (EM) and foliar application of nano potassium chelate). Such traits as plant height, number of branch per plant, number of flower per plant, flower yield, root and shoot fresh weight, leaf N percentage and inulin percentage, were evaluated. To apply drought stress has been used from TDR set. After data collection statistical analysis was performed using SAS program and Means were separated according to the least significant difference (DMRT) at 0.05 level of probability.
Results: The results showed that the interaction of drought stress and bio-fertilizers had a significant effect on all traits except plant height. The results showed with increasing in stress rate, plant height, number of branch per plant, number of flower per plant, flower yield, root fresh and dry weight, inulin percentage and leaf N percentage, decreased. The bio-fertilizers application improved all traits. The maximum plant height, number of branch per plant, number of flower per plant, flower yield, root fresh and dry weight and inulin percentage were obtained from irrigation after 90% field capacity along with EM application. With increasing in drought rates from control to 50% FC, leaf nitrogen percentage decreased so that the highest leaf nitrogen was obtained from irrigation after 90% FC along with nitroxin application and the lowest was belonged to severe drought stress without fertilizer.
Conclusion: In this experiment, optimum treatment for highest of fresh and dry weight and inulin perceantage was microorganism fertilizer (EM) application in 90% FC condition. In general, the results revealed that to achieve high yield of chicory, irrigation after 90% FC along with EM could be used.
Keywords: Irrigation, Nano potassium chelate, Nitrogen percentage, Number of flower per plant

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation
  • Nano potassium chelate
  • Nitrogen percentage
  • Number of flower per plant
1. Arazmjo, A., Heidari, M., Ghanbari, A., Siahsar, B. and Ahmadian, A. 2010. Effects of three types of fertilizers on essential oil, photosynthetic pigments, and osmoregulators in chamomile under drought stress. Environ Stres. Crop Sci. 3(1): 23-33. (In Persian)
2. Attala, E., Amal, S., El-seginy, M. and Eliwa, G.I. 2000. Response of leconnte pear trees to foliar application with active dry yeasts. J. Agric. Sci. 25: 7701-7707.
3. Bannayan, M., Nadjafi, F., Azizi, M., Tabrizi, L. and Rastgoo, M. 2008. Yield and seed quality of Plantago ovata and Nigella sativa under different irrigation treatments. Ind. Crops.Produc. 17: 11-16.
4. Behdani, M.A. and Jami Al-Ahmadi, M. 2011. Response of spring safflower varieties to different irrigation distance in Birjand. Iran. J. Field Crops Res. 8: 315-323. (In Persian with English abstract).
5. Bloordi, M. 1999. Production of kambojia using plant extract containing inulin. M.Sc Thesis Faculty of Agriculture Biosystem. University of Tehran. (In Persian).
6. Bremner, J.M. and Mulvaney, C.S. 1982. Total nitrogen, In: A.L. Page, R.H. Miller and D.R.Keeny, (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp. 1119-1123.
7. Charles, D.J., Joly, R.J. and Simon, J.E. 1990. Effects of osmotic stress on the essential oil content and composition of peppermint. Phytochem. 29: 2837–2840.
8. Ehyaee, H., Parsa, M., Kafi, M. and Nasiri Mahallati, M. 2011. Effect of foliar application of methanol and irrigation regimes on yield and yield components of chickpea cultivars. Iranian J. Pulses Res. 1(2): 37-48. (In Persian).
9. Foaadeini, M., Seghatoleslami. M.J. and Moosavi, S.G.R. 2015. Effect of water deficit stress on traits of chichory (Cichoriumintybus L.) in different planting dates. Iran. J. Med.Aromatic Plants. 31(3): 383-395. (In Persian).
10.Gholizadeh, A., Amin, M.S.M., Anuar, A.R., Esfahani, M. and Saberioon, M.M. 2010. The study on the effect of different levels of zeolite and water stress on growth, development and essential oil content of moldavian Balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Amer. J. Appl. Sci.7(1): 33-37.
11.Ghorbani, S., Paknejad, F., Oroui Nia, S., Mirzaei, M.M. and Babaei, B. 2013. Effect of biofertilizers on grain yield, biological yield and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under ecological cropping system. Iran. J. Agron. Plant Breed. 9(1):63-73. (In Persian with English Summary)
12.Gorski, R. and Kleiber, T. 2010. Effect of effective microorganisms (EM) on nutrient contents in substrate and development and yielding of Rose (Rosa x hybrida) and Gerbera (Gerberajamesonii). Ecol. Chemist. Engine. 17(4): 505-513.
13.Gregory, P.J. 2006. Plant Roots (Growth, Activity and Interaction with Soils), Blackwell Publishing 150-173.
14.Han, H.S., Supanjani, D. and Lee, K.D. 2006. Effect of coin coculation with phosphate andpotassium solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Plant Soil Environ. 52: 130-136.
15.Hashemi-Nejad, A. and Bahadori, A. 2010. Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Farhikhtegan Daneshgah Press, Tehran. (In Persian).
16.Hassan, F.A.S. 2009. Response of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. plant to some biofertilization treatments. Annal. Agric. Sci. 54:437-446.
17.Hecl, J. and Sustrikova, A. 2006. Determination of heavy metals in chamomile flower drugan   assurance of quality control. Program and Abstract book of the 1st International Symposium on Chamomile Research, Development and Production pp. 69.
18.Higa, T. and Parr, J.F. 1994. Beneficial and effective microorganisms for a sustainable agriculture and environment. International Nature Farming Research Center, Atami, Japan.
19.Jafarzadeh, R., Jamimoeini, M. and Hokmabadi, M. 2013. Response of yield and yield components in wheat to soil and foliar application of nano potassium fertilizer. J. Agro. Res.5: 1-7. (In Persian).
20.Kafi, M., and Rostami, M. 2008. Effect of drought stress in reproductive growth stage on yield and components yield and oil content three safflower cultivars in irrigation with salty water conditions. Iranian J. Agric. Res. 5(1): 121-131. (In Persian).
21.Lal, P., Chhipa, B.R. and Kumar, A. 1993. Salt affected soil and crop production: A modern synthesis. Agro Botanical PublishersIndia, 375.
22.Mazaheri, D., Askri, M. and Bankehsaz, A. 2002. Effect of plant density and sowing patterns on yield and yield components of maize. Pajouhesh Va Sazandegi, 50: 46-48. (In Persian).
23.Mohammadkhani, N. and Heidari, R. 2007. Effects of water stress on respiration, photosynthetic pigments and water content in tow Maize cultivar. Pakistan J. Bio. Sci.10(22): 4022-4028.
24.Moridpur, A., Sateei, A. and Ghorbanli, M. 2013. Growth and pigments content and total protein medicinal herb nettle (Urtica dioical L.) in different water regimes. J. Plant Ecophysiol. Iran. 118: 9-127.
25.Nagananda, G.S., Das, A., Bhattacharya, S., and Kalpana, T. 2010. In vitro studies on the effects of biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Rhizobium) on seed germination and development of Trigonella foenum graecum L. using a novel glass marble containing liquid medium. Int.J. Bot. 6: 394-403.
26.Omid-Beigi, R. 2000. Production and Products of Medicinal Plants. Astane hodse Razavi Press. Mashhad. (In Persian).
27.Paknejad, F. 2005. Effect of drought stress on physiological parameters, yield and yield components of three wheat cultivars. PhD Thesis of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch. (In Persian)
28.Paseephol, T., Small, D. and Sherkat, F. 2007. Process optimization for fractionating Jerusalem  artichoke fructans with ethanol using response surface methodology. J. Food Chemis. 104: 73–80.
29.Ramroudi, M., Keikha Jaleh, M., Galavi, M., Seghatoleslami, M.J. and Baradran, R. 2011. The effect of various micronutrient foliar applications and irrigation regimes on quantitative and qualitative yields of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.). Agroe. J. 3(3): 277-289. (In Persian with English Summary)
30.Rathke, G.W., Behrens, T. and Diepenbrock, W. 2006. Integrated nitrogen management strategies to improve seed yield, oil content and nitrogen efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.): A review. Agric. Eco. Environ. 117: 80–108.
31.Rezaeianzadeh, E. 2008. The effect of supplemental irrigation on yield and growth indices of chickpea. M.Sc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. (In Persian).
32.Saedi, F. 2015. Effects of different fertilizer surces and drought stress qualitative and quatitive yield of chichory (Cichoriumintybus L.). Thesis M.Sc. University of Zabol (In Persian).
33.Saedi, F., Mousavi Nik, S.M. and Rahimian bogar, A. 2015. Effect of water stress and different fertilizer sources on physiological characteristics of chicory (Cichorium intybus L).1st National Conference on Herbs and Herbal Medicine, May 15, 2015. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
34.Saravanakumar, D., Kavino, M. Raguchander, T., Subbian, P. and Samiyappan, R. 2011. Plant growth promoting bacteria enhance water stress resistance in green gram plants. Acta Physiol. Plant. 33: 203-209.
35.Sharifi, Z. and Haghnia, A. 2007. Effect of nitroxin biofertilizer on yield and yield components of wheat (Var Sabalan). 2nd National Congress of Ecological Agriculture, Gorgan, Iran. (In Persian).
36.Shokouhian, A.A., Davarynejad, Gh., Tehranifr, A., Imani, A. and Rasoulzadeh, A. 2013. Influence of effective microorganisms on flower buds formation of two almond genotypes in water stress conditions. J. Horti. Sci. 27: 217-226. (In Persian).
37.Swaefy Hend, M.F., Weaam, R.A., Sabh, A.Z. and Ragab, A.A. 2007. Effect of some chemical and biofertilizers on peppermint plants grown in sandy soil. J. Agric. Sci. 52(2):451-463.
38.Tavakoli-Saberi, M. and Sedaghat, R. 2005. In: Medicinal Plants. (6th ed). Gulshan Press. Tehran. 201.
39.Tesfamariam, E.H., Annandale, J.G. and Steyn, J.M. 2010. Water stress effects on winter canola growth and yield. Agro. J. 102: 658–666.
40.Tilak, K.V.B., Ranganayaki, N., Pal, K.K., Saxena, R., De, R.K., Nautiyal, C.S., Mitral, S.,Tripathi, A.K. and Johri, B.N. 2005. Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Current. Sci. 89: 136-150.
41.Vandoorne, B., Mathieu, A.S., Van den ende, W., Vergauwen, R., Perilleux, C., Javaux, M. and Lutts, S. 2012. Water stress drastically reduces root growth and inulin yield in Chicoriumintybus (var. sativum) independently of photosynthesis. J. Exp. Bot. 63(12): 4359-4373.
42.Wu, S.C., Caob, Z.H., Li, Z.G., Cheung, K.C. and Wong, M.H. 2005. Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: A greenhouse trial. Geoderma. 125: 155-166.