اثر کسر آبیاری تنظیم شده بر ویژگی‌های رویشی، میوه‌شناختی و عملکردی زیتون رقم آمفی‌سیس

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی - باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: زیتون درختی همیشه سبز و مقاوم به خشکی است که اغلب برای تهیه کنسرو و روغن در مناطقی با محدودیت منابع آبی کشت می‌شود. به دلیل وجود شرایط مناسب برای پرورش زیتون و نیاز کشور به تولید روغن، این محصول از نظر اقتصادی اهمیت زیادی دارد. با توجه به خطر جدی خشکی و کمبود آب، تامین آب مورد نیاز درختان یکی از محدودیت‌های اصلی برای توسعه کشت زیتون است که در چند سال اخیر، استفاده از روش‌های مناسب در بهره‌برداری بهینه از منابع آبی مانند استفاده از ارقام مقاوم، تعیین زمان‌های بحرانی آبیاری، استفاده از مالچ و استفاده از تنظیم کننده‌های رشد کاهش دهنده تعرق برای صرفه‌جویی در مصرف آب مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. در این بین، راهبرد کم آبیاری یک راه حل مناسب در باغبانی بوده تا کارآیی مصرف آب را بهبود بخشد. در این روش آبیاری بر اساس حفظ وضعیت آبی داخل گیاه با توجه به حداکثر پتانسیل آب در مراحل ویژه‌ای از چرخه گیاه به‌ ویژه زمانی‌که رشد میوه کمترین حساسیت را به تنش خشکی دارد، انجام می‌شود.
تاکنون پژوهش‌های بسیاری در مورد اثر تیمارهای خشکی و کم آبیاری بر رشد رویشی گیاهان زیتون به صورت گلدانی در مورد گیاهان یک تا چند ساله زیتون صورت گرفته است. لذا با توجه به کشت زیتون در شرایط آب و هوایی مختلف و نقاط مختلف کشور و تهدید خشکی و کم آبی ضروری است این موضوع روی درختان بارور در مناطق مختلف کشور مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. لذا تعیین مراحل غیر حساس رشدی میوه به کسر آبیاری تنظیم شده به ویژه در شرایط کشت تجاری، از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی و مقایسه تیمارهای کم آبیاری تنظیم شده و آبیاری کم بر ویژگی‌های رشدی و زایشی زیتون در شرایط مزرعه صورت گرفته است.
مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش حاضر در ایستگاه تحقیقات زیتون دالاهو واقع در استان کرمانشاه، در سال زراعی 95-94 انجام گرفت. این پژوهش در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و شش رژیم‌ آبیاری انجام شد. مواد آزمایشی این پژوهش درختان 16ساله زیتون آمفی‌سیس بودند. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل آبیاری به میزان100 درصد نیاز آبی درختان زیتون در طول فصل (شاهد)، تامین آبیاری به میزان 25 درصد در طول مدت سخت شدن هسته و 100 درصد در سایر مراحل رشد میوه، تامین آبیاری به میزان 75 درصد از سخت شدن هسته تا برداشت محصول و 100 درصد در سایر مراحل رشد میوه، تامین آبیاری به میزان 25 درصد در طول مدت تغییر رنگ میوه و 100 درصد در سایر مراحل رشد میوه، آبیاری به میزان 60 درصد نیاز آبی درختان زیتون طی کل فصل و شرایط دیم، با سامانه آبیاری قطره‌ای اعمال گردید. درختان به فاصله 6×6 کشت شده بودند و هر واحد آزمایشی شامل سه درخت بود.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که تامین آبیاری به میزان 25 درصد در طول مدت سخت شدن هسته باعث افزایش عملکرد میوه و روغن، ابعاد میوه و درصد گوشت گردید و نیز تامین آبیاری به میزان 25 درصد آبیاری در مرحله تغییر رنگ میوه باعث افزایش درصد روغن در ماده تر و خشک و عملکرد روغن در هکتار گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان داد که بهره‌وری مصرف آب در تولید میوه و روغن در تیمار کسر آبیاری در طول تغییر رنگ میوه و سخت شدن هسته بالاتر از آبیاری کامل و دیگر تیمارها بود. در مجموع، کسر آبیاری در مرحله سخت شدن هسته و تغییر رنگ میوه بدون کاهش عملکرد میوه و نیز ابعاد میوه، بهره‌وری مصرف آب را افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of regulated deficit irrigation regime on vegetative and Pomological Characteristics and Yield of oli Olive Amphisis Cultivar.

نویسندگان [English]

  • RAHMATOLLAH GHOLAMI
  • abolmaohaen hajiamiri
Horticulture Crops research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Regulated deficit irrigation is an optimizing strategy under which crops are allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. During regulated deficit irrigation the crop is exposed to certain level of water stress either during a particular period or throughout the growing season. The main objective deficit irrigation of is to increase water use efficiency (WUE) of the crop by eliminating irrigations that have little impact on yield, and to improve control of vegetative growth (improve fruit size and quality). The resulting yield reduction may be small compared with the benefits gained through diverting the saved water to irrigate other crops for which water would normally be insufficient under conventional irrigation practices. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of regulated deficit irrigation regime on vegetative and Pomological Characteristics and Yield of oil Olive Amphisis Cultivar in Field Condition.
Materials and methods
This experiment was conducted in Dallaho Olive Research Station located in Kermanshah province. An experiment was used based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Adult oil olive Amphisis cultivar was used. six irrigation regimes including full irrigation (as control), regulated deficit irrigation (100% of full irrigation during growing season plus 25% irrigation during pit hardening, regulated deficit irrigation (100% of full irrigation during growing season plus 75% irrigation from Start pit hardening to Harvesting), regulated deficit irrigation (100% of full irrigation during growing season plus 25% irrigation during fruit verasion), 60% of full irrigation (continuous deficit irrigation) and no irrigation (Rainfed). To elevate the effect of irrigation regimes, some growth vegetative traits measured at the end of growth season including current-season shoot growth and diameter as well as some fruit traits including fruit and oil yield, fruit weight, fruit length and diameter, pulp fresh and dry weight, fruit moisture percent, pulp percent, dry and fresh oil content, Fruit and oil water use efficiency were measured.
Results
Obtained results showed that The highest fruit yield, oil yield, fruit weight, fruit diameter, pulp fresh and dry weight, pulp percent were observed at full irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation (100% of full irrigation during growing season plus 25% irrigation during pit hardening and regulated deficit irrigation (100% of full irrigation during growing season plus 25% irrigation during fruit verasion),but the lowest one found at Rainfed. Overall, the results showed that regulated deficit irrigation during fruit pit hardening and fruit verasion could increased water use efficiency, whitout reduce fruit yield, oil yield, fruit weight, fruit diameter, pulp fresh and dry weight.
Discussion
In the arid and semi arid as well as sub-tropical regions, water shortage is a normal phenomenon and seriously limits the agricultural potential. Therefore, under irrigation or rain-fed conditions, it is important for the available water to be used in the most efficient way. Regulated deficit irrigation is an optimizing strategy under which crops are allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. During regulated deficit irrigation the crop is exposed to certain level of water stress either during a particular period or throughout the growing season. The main objective deficit irrigation of is to increase water use efficiency (WUE) of the crop by eliminating irrigations that have little impact on yield, and to improve control of vegetative growth
Conclusion
According to the results of this research, it can be concluded that that RDI during fruit pit hardening and fruit verasion could increased water use efficiency, whitout reduce fruit yield, oil yield, fruit weight, fruit diameter, pulp fresh and dry weight.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Olive
  • Deficit irrigation
  • Oil
  • Fruit characteristics
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