اثر کاربرد کودهای آلی، زیستی و شیمیایی بر خصوصیات کمی زرشک بی‌دانه در سال آور

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه زابل

2 هیئت علمی

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: برای داشتن یک نظام کشاورزی پایدار، استفاده از نهاده‌هایی که جنبه‌های بوم شناختی را بهبود بخشند و مخاطرات محیطی را کاهش دهند، ضروری به‌نظر می‌رسد. گیاه زرشک از قرن‌ها پیش در اکثر کشورها برای مصرف خوراکی به‌عنوان چاشنی غذاها و هم‌چنین به‌عنوان دارو برای کاهش فشار خون، تقویت قلب، تسکین حرارت معده و بند آمدن سیلان خون بواسیر، استفاده می‌شده است. همچنین، میوه زرشک طبیعتی سرد و خشک دارد، صفرابر و مدر است، از خون‌ریزی مزمن جلوگیری می‌کند و برای تقویت و رفع انسداد کبد بسیار نافع است (31). این گیاه در ایران پراکنش زیادی دارد و در شیب‌های تند به‌ویژه خاک‌های آهک‌دار در آذربایجان، گیلان، مازندران، گلستان، تهران، خراسان (قاین، سربیشه، سلم‌آباد، درگز) و فارس دیده می‌شود (44). شهرستان‌های قاین و بیرجند در استان خراسان جنوبی بیش از 97 درصد سطح زیرکشت زرشک کشور و تولید 95 درصد از زرشک دنیا را دارا می باشد (20).
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار، در باغی تجاری در شهرستان قاینات، در سال زراعی 1394-1395 اجرا شد. کرت‌های اصلی آزمایش شامل چهار ترکیب کودی شامل عدم مصرف کود، مصرف کود شیمیایی، کود آلی (گاوی) و کاربرد 50 درصد کود شیمیایی + 50 درصد کود آلی بودند. کرت‌های فرعی نیز شامل عدم مصرف کود زیستی و اسید‌هیومیک، کود زیستی فسفات‌بارور2، اسید هیومیک و کاربرد توام کود زیستی + اسید هیومیک بود.
یافته‌ها: تیمارهای مورد مطالعه اثر معنی‌داری بر تمام صفات اندازه گیری شده داشت. به‌طوری که کاربرد توام کود‌های شیمیایی و دامی همراه با کود آبیاری اسید هیومیک و فسفات ‌بارور2 بیشترین میانگین‌ها را از نظر طول حبه و برگ، وزن تر و خشک 100 حبه، عملکرد تر و خشک حبه و عملکرد تر شاخه‌های بارور داشت. استفاده از کود آلی با کود آبیاری اسید هیومیک و فسفات‌بارور2 موجب تولید بیشترین تعداد حبه در خوشه، خوشه در شاخه و تعداد شاخه‌های بارور گردید. بیشترین تعداد شاخه‌های فصل جاری و نسبت شاخه‌های بدون بار به شاخه‌های بارور نیز به کاربرد کود شیمیایی به همراه کود آبیاری اسید هیومیک و فسفات‌بارور‌2 اختصاص داشت. عملکرد خشک حبه (عملکرد اقتصادی) در شرایط استفاده توام کودهای شمیایی و دامی با اسید هیومیک و فسفات‌بارور2، حدود 48/10 درصد نسبت به تیمار کود آلی + اسید‌هیومیک + فسفات بارور‌2، حدود 11/20 درصد نسبت به تیمار کود شیمیایی + اسیدهیومیک + فسفاتبارور2 و 30/27 درصد نسبت به شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) افزایش یافت.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده از این آزمایش، تیمار کاربرد تلفیقی کود آلی و شیمیایی به همراه اسیدهیومیک و فسفات بارور 2 حداکثر طول حبه و برگ، وزن تر و خشک 100 حبه، عملکرد تر و خشک حبه، عملکرد تر محصول با شاخه را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers on quantitative traits of seedless barberry

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Zare 1
  • Mohammad Reza Asgharipour 1
  • barat ali fakheri 2
1 University of Zabol
2 scientific staff university of zabol
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: In order to have a sustainable agricultural system, it is essential to use inputs that help improve the biology and reduce the contamination. Since centuries ago barberry has been used as a food additive, as well as a medicine to lower blood pressure, strengthen the heart, relieve stomach, urinate and hemorrhoids and is very beneficial to strengthen and eliminate liver obstruction (31). This plant is widely distributed in Iran and it can be seen on steep slopes, especially calcareous soils in Azerbaijan, Gilan, Mazandaran, Golestan, Tehran, Khorasan (Qaen, Sarbishe, Salm Abad, Dargaz) and Fars (44). The cities of Qaen and Birjand in South Khorasan Province account for more than 97% of the country's barberry crop area and produce 95% of the world's barberry (20). With regard to the importance of food and medicinal products of barberry shrub this experiment was conducted with the aim of applying chemical, organic and biological fertilizers on the quantitative characteristics of barberry.
Materials and methods: This experiment was conducted as split plot randomized complete block design with three replications in commercial garden in Qaen during 2016. Main treatments comprised four application type of fertilizer (1-no fertilizer application, and application of 2-Chemical fertilizer, 3-organic fertilizer and 4-50 percent of chemical along with 50 percent of organic fertilizer). Sub treatments were no fertilizer, application of Phosphate Barvar-2, humic acid, and Phosphate Barvar-2 + humic acid. The studied characteristics were measured at the end of the growing season (early November) when the fruits were in physiological maturity. For sampling from each shrub, 7 branches were selected randomly. The average number of berries per spike, number of spikes per branch and fresh weight of 100 berries as the values of these traits were reported for that shrub. The mean length of 7 leaves and berries were reported as the length of barberry leaf and berries. In addition, the yield of the berries and the weight of the branches were measured for all shrubs.
The total number of fertile and non-fertile branches was counted in each shrub and the ratio of non-fertile to fertile branches was obtained. Dry weight of 100 berries and dry yield of berries (economic yield) were measured by drying them.
Results: Fertilizer treatments significantly influenced all traits, so that combined application of chemical and organic fertilizer along with fertigation of humic acid and Phosphate Barvar-2 produced the greatest length of berries and leaves, fresh and dry weight of 100-berries, fresh and dry yield of berry and fresh weight of fertile branch. Application of organic fertilizer along with fertigation of humic acid and Phosphate Barvar-2 produced the greatest berry numbers per panicle, panicle number per branch and fertile branches. The highest season branches and ratio of infertile/fertile branches was observed in plants fertilized with chemical fertilizer along with humic acid and Phosphate Barvar-2. Dry weight of berries (economic yield) increased in plant fertilized with combined application of chemical and organic fertilizer along with humic acid and Phosphate Barvar-2 by 10.48, 20.11 and 27.30 percent in comparison with the organic fertilizer+ humic acid+ Phosphate Barvar-2, chemical fertilizer + humic acid+ Phosphate Barvar-2 and control, respectively.
Conclusion: These results suggested that the greatest berries and leaf length, fresh and dried weight of berries and impure fresh yield was obtained at combined application of chemical and organic fertilizer along with fertigation of humic acid and Phosphate Barvar-2. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the combined use of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers increased the yield and yield components of barberry more than their separate application.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Combined Nutrition
  • Humic acid
  • Manure
  • Qayenat
  • Quantitative yeild
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