اثر پوشاندن میوه قبل از برداشت بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی و کیفیت انار رقم شیشه کب

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی بیرجند

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: انار بومی مناطق گرمسیری و نیمه گرمسیری است؛ از اینرو، شدت تابش خورشیدی و دمای بالا در فصول گرم موجب بروز ناهنجاری‌های فیزیولوژیکی و افت کیفیت محصول می‌شود. بنابراین، هدف از پژوهش حاضر، تأثیر زمان پوشاندن میوه (اوایل تیر و مرداد ماه) با رنگ‌های مختلف کیسه‌های پارچه‌‌ای (سفید و قهوه‌ای روشن) بر خصوصیات فیزیکو شیمیایی میوه انار رقم شیشه کب بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش در شهرستان فردوس و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با پنج تیمار و چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل؛ شاهد (میوه بدون کیسه)، پوشاندن میوه با کیسه سفید در تیر ماه، با کیسه قهوه‌ای روشن در تیر ماه، با کیسه سفید در مرداد ماه و با کیسه قهوه‌ای در مرداد ماه بود.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد پوشاندن میوه موجب کاهش ترکیدگی میوه شد، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین درصد ترکیدگی(2/56 درصد) در میوه‌های شاهد و کمترین میزان در میوه‌هایی که با کیسه‌های سفید در مردادماه پوشانده شده بودند، (03/7 درصد) مشاهده شد. درصد قهوه‌ای شدن آریل در میوه‌های کیسه شده افزایش معنی‌داری نسبت به میوه‌های بدون کیسه نشان داد، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین میزان آن در میوه‌هایی که با کیسه‌های سفید در مردادماه پوشانده شده بودند (13/20 درصد) و کمترین در میوه‌های بدون کیسه (66/1 درصد) مشاهده گردید. پوشاندن میوه اثر معنی‌داری بر وزن، حجم و چگالی آب‌میوه، وزن تازه پوست و ضخامت پوست در میوه‌های پوشانده ‌شده نسبت به میوه‌های کیسه نشده (شاهد) نداشت اما زمان پوشاندن میوه بر وزن و حجم آب‌میوه اثر معنی‌داری داشت. به‌طوری‌که بیشترین وزن و حجم آب‌میوه در میوه هایی که در تیر ‌ماه کیسه شده بودند مشاهده شد. پوشاندن میوه موجب کاهش میزان آنتوسیانین آب‌میوه شد. میوه‌های کیسه نشده (شاهد) بالاترین میزان آنتوسیانین و میوه‌هایی که با کیسه قهوه‌ای روشن در مرداد ‌ماه کیسه شدند کمترین میزان آنتوسیانین را داشتند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین درصد فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی مربوط به میوه‌های بدون کیسه و کمترین آن در میوه‌هایی که با کیسه قهوه‌ای روشن در مرداد ‌ماه کیسه شدند بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: کیفیت خوب محصول به وسیله کاهش میزان ترکیدگی میوه بهبود می یابد که این امر قیمت محصول و بازارپسندی آن را افزایش می‌دهد. از سوی دیگر میوه‌های ترک خورده برای بازار نامناسب هستند و انبارمانی پایینی دارند جالب اینکه پوشاندن میوه توانست تا حدودی این عارضه را کاهش دهد. اگر چه در این پژوهش میزان آنتوسیانین و آنتی‌اکسیدان که از مهمترین شاخص‌های تغذیه‌ای و دارویی انار محسوب می‌شوند، تحت تأثیر دمای بالا و تابش کم، کاهش یافت. با وجود این، می‌توان با انتخاب مناسب و دقیق نوع کیسه، رنگ کیسه و زمان انجام پوشاندن میوه و همچنین تعیین زمان حذف کیسه قبل از برداشت، علاوه بر داشتن کیفیت ظاهری خوب و مطلوب، بلکه کیفیت تغذیه‌ای و دارویی مناسب دست یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of pre-harvest covering fruit on some physicochemical properties and quality of pomegranate fruit cv. Shishe Kab

نویسنده [English]

  • Farid Moradinezhad 2
2 Department of Horticultural Science, University of Birjand, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: The pomegranate is native to tropical and subtropical regions. Therefore, the intensity of solar radiation and high temperatures in the warm seasons cause physiological disorders and loss of product quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the covering fruit (bagging) and covering time (early July and early August) with different colors of the textile bag (white and light brown) on the physicochemical properties of Shishe Kab pomegranate cultivar.
Materials and methods: This experiment was performed in Ferdows city, in a randomized complete block design with four replications and five fruit in each replication. Treatments included: control (non-bagged fruit), fruit covered with a white bag in July, with a light brown bag in July, with a white bag in August and with a light brown bag in August.
Results: The results showed that coverage decreased the cracking percentage of fruit so that the highest cracking percentage (56.2%) was observed in non-covered fruits (control) and the lowest (7.03%) in fruits covered with a light brown bag in August. The percentage of aril browning in covered fruits compared to the control showed a significant difference which the highest aril browning (20.13%) gained in covered fruits with a white bag in August and the lowest (1.66%) gained in non-covered fruits. The highest skin lightness was observed in fruits covered by the light brown bag in August and the lowest in fruits covered with the white bag in July. Covering fruit had no significant effects on fruit juice weight, volume, and density, fresh weight, and thickness of the skin, compared to the control. However, covering time had a significant effect on the juice weight and volume so that the maximum weight and volume of juice was observed in July. Covering fruit reduced juice anthocyanins. Non-covered fruits (control) had the highest amount of anthocyanin and fruits covered with the light brown bag in August had the lowest amount of anthocyanin. Coverage fruit had a significant effect on antioxidant activity reduction of juice. Results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in non-covered fruits and the lowest was in fruits covered with a light brown bag in August.
Conclusions: Good quality of the product by reducing cracked fruits increase the price of the product and also its marketability. In addition, cracked fruits are unsuitable for the market and storage. Interestingly, covering fruit can reduce this disorder to some extent. However, in this study, anthocyanin and antioxidant values which are the most common indicators of nutritional and medicinal of pomegranate fruit reduced by high temperatures and low radiation. Nevertheless, with the proper selection of cover type, color and the covering time and removing time of the bag before harvest, not only a good appearance and quality, but also desirable nutritional and medicinal aspects can be achieved.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aril browning
  • Cracking
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Anthocyanin
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