مطالعه تاثیر هورمون جیبرلیک‌اسید و وزن بنه بر صفات رویشی و عملکرد زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گرایش فیزیولوژی گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، ایران.

2 عضو هیت علمی گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

3 استاد گروه پژوهشی زعفران، دانشگاه بیرجند، ایران

4 استاد گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: زعفران(.Crocus sativus L) یکی از مهم‌ترین محصولات کشاورزی و دارویی ایران است که نقش مهمی در صادرات غیرنفتی دارد. در بیشتر مناطق کشور به علت نیاز آبی کم این محصول و سازگاری مناسب آن با شرایط محیطی، امکان کشت این گیاه وجود دارد. بنابراین، هدف از اجرای پژوهش حاضر، بررسی اثر همزمان محلول‌پاشی هورمون جیبرلیک ‌اسید و وزن بنه مادری بر صفات رویشی، زایشی و عملکرد گل گیاه زعفران بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: این تحقیق به منظور بررسی اثرهورمون جیبرلیک اسید و وزن‌ بنه مادری بر شاخص‌های عملکرد گل و ویژگی‌های رشدی زعفران، به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با دو سطح اسید جیبرلیک (0 و 20 پی‌پی‌ام) و 3 سطح وزن بنه مادری (شامل گروه‌های وزنی 4-1/0(ریز)، 8-1/4 (متوسط) و 12-1/8 گرم(درشت) در 3 تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند، در سال 1395 اجرا گردید. صفات اندازه‏گیری شده شامل صفات مربوط به برگ (طول و وزن تر و خشک و کلروفیل برگ) و صفات گل (تعداد و عملکرد کل گل تر، متوسط طول کلاله و عملکرد کلاله تر و خشک) بود.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که وزن بنه مادری بر تمامی صفات گل موثر بود، به طوریکه بیشترین تعداد گل، عملکرد گل (به ترتیب 72/37 عدد گل در متر مربع، 59/6 گرم در متر مربع)، متوسط وزن تر گل و متوسط وزن تر و خشک کلاله (به ترتیب 381/0 گرم و 025/0 و 0046/0 گرم) از تیمار بنه‌های درشت و کمترین آن‌ها از بنه‌های ریز مشاهده شد. همچنین افزایش وزن بنه، سبب بالا رفتن صفات مربوط به برگ (طول برگ، وزن تر و خشک برگ، کلروفیل a، b و کل برگ) شد، به گونه‌ای که بیشترین این صفات از تیمار بنه‌های درشت و کمترین آن از تیمار بنه‌های ریز حاصل شد. اثر اسید جیبرلیک نیز بر اکثر صفات رویشی برگ معنی‌دار بود، بطوریکه بیشترین میزان طول برگ (02/32 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد برگ (28/6 عدد در بوته)، متوسط وزن تر برگ (388/0 گرم)، کلروفیل a (03/2 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر) از تیمار مصرف جیبرلیک اسید بدست آمد. اسید جیبرلیک در صفات مربوط به گل، تنها بر تعداد گل اثرمعنی‌دار داشت، که باعث کاهش تعداد گل گردید. هم‌چنین نتایج برهم‌کنش تیمارها نشان داد، که بیشترین میزان کلروفیل b از برهمکنش، بنه‌های درشت و مصرف جیبرلیک اسید به دست آمد. بالاترین متوسط طول کلاله نیز از بنه‌های متوسط و عدم مصرف جیبرلیک اسید بدست آمد.
نتیجه گیری: بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، بنه‌های مادری درشت (12-1/8 گرم) اثرات مثبتی بر خصوصیات رشدی، زایشی و عملکرد گل زعفران داشت، در حالیکه، کاربرد جیبرلیک اسید، تنها باعث بهبود صفات رویشی زعفران گردید و روی صفات مربوط به گل زعفران تاثیر معنی داری نداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of gibberellin cacid hormone and mother corm weight on vegetative and reproductive growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • masoome shakeri 1
  • Mohammed Hossein Aminifard 2
  • Mohammed Ali Behdani 3
  • Seyed Jalal Tabatabaei 4
1 2- M.Sc. Graduate Students Medicinal plant physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Horticulture Science Department and Special Plants Regional Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran.
3 Professor of Saffron Research Group, Birjand University, Iran.
4 Professor of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: Saffron is one of the most important crops and medicinal plants in Iran and plays an important role in non-oil exports of the country. Saffron is cultivated in most part of Iran, because of low water requirement and well adaptation to diverse environmental condition. Therefore, the present study is to investigate the effects of corm weights and gibberellic acid on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron.

Materials and methods: The effects of applications of gibberellic acid hormone (GA) and mother weight corm on flower yield and growth characteristics of saffron were evaluated under field conditions. Treatments were tow levels of gibberellic acid (0 and 20 ppm) and three mother corm weights (0.1- 4, 4.1- 8 and 8.1- 12 g). The experiment was designed as factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research station of Faculty of Agriculture University of Birjand during growing season of 2016-2017. The measured indices were included of leaf characteristics (leaf length, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll a, b and total leaf) and flower characteristics (flower number and fresh total yield, average stigma length, stigma fresh and dry yield).

Results: The results indicated that mother corm weight had significant effect on all flowering traits, so that the highest flowers number, flower yield (37.7% per m2,6.59 g. m-2), flowers fresh weight and stigma fresh weight (0.381 g, and 0.025) was observed from corm weight 8.1-12 g and the least of them was recorded from corm weight 0.1-4 g. Also, with increase corm weight, increased the leaf traits (leaf length, leaf weight, chlorophyll a, b and total leaf), so that the highest and lowest of these traits were recorded with corm weight 8.1-12 g and 0.1-4 g, respectively. It was found that gibberellic acid had significant effect on most vegetative traits of leaves, so that the highest leaf length (32.02 cm), leaf number (28.26), Leaf fresh weight (0.388 g), chlorophyll a (0.203 mg. g) were obtained from gibberellic acid treatment. but, gibberellic acid reduced the number of flowers. Also, interaction effects of gibberellic acid and corm weight had a significant effect on chlorophyll b and stigma length.

Conclusion: According to this study, results showed that corm weight (12-8/1 g) had strong impact on growth characteristics and yield of saffron, increased saffron vegetative and reproductive characteristics, while, the use of gibberellic acid only improved the vegetative traits and didn't affect on saffron flowering traits.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • number of flowers
  • total chlorophyll
  • Leaf dry weight
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