اثر کود نیتروژن و تراکم بوته بر عملکرد و شاخص‌های کارایی نیتروژن کنجد با استفاده از طرح مرکب مرکزی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

مقدمه
کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) با نام علمی به دلیل محتوی بالای روغن در دانه (60-50 درصد) به عنوان پادشاه گیاهان دانه روغنی شناخته شده است.
نیتروژن یکی از مهمترین عناصر غذایی در اکوسیستم‌‌های کشاورزی محسوب می‌شود. کاربرد بیش از حد از این عنصر باعث کاهش کارایی مصرف نیتروژن می-شود.
بهینه‌سازی نیتروژن و تراکم بوته یکی از راهکارهای مدیریتی برای حفاظت از منابع طبیعی و کاهش آلودگی‌های زیست‌محیطی محسوب می‌باشد.
مدل سطح پاسخ (RSM) مجموعه‌ای از تکنیک‌های آماری مورد استفاده برای بهینه‌سازی نهاده‌های تولید به شمار می‌آید. RSM یک روش آماری برای بهینه-سازی چند فاکتور است که با استفاده از ترکیب طرح‌های آزمایشی شرایط بهینه عوامل تولید را تعیین می‌کند. در این مطالعه، اثر کود نیتروژن و تراکم بوته بر عملکرد و شاخص‌های کارایی نیتروژن کنجد با استفاده از طرح مرکب مرکزی (CCD) برای مدل سطح پاسخ بررسی شد.

مواد و روش‌ها
این آزمایش با استفاده از طرح مرکب مرکزی با 13 تیمار و 2 تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 95-1394 انجام شد. تیمارها بر اساس سطح پایین و بالای تراکم بوته (به ترتیب با 10 و 40 بوته در متر مربع) و نیتروژن (به ترتیب با صفر و 100 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار) تعیین شدند. عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، کارایی جذب نیتروژن، کارایی تبدیل نیتروژن و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن بعنوان متغیر وابسته مورد اندازه‌گیری قرار گرفتند و تغییرات این متغیرها با استفاده از یک مدل رگرسیونی ارزیابی شد. به منظور ارزیابی کیفیت مدل برازش شده از آزمون عدم برازش استفاده شد. بسندگی مدل با استفاده از آنالیز واریانس مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. به طور کلی، معادله چند جمله‌ای درجه دوم کامل برای تعیین معنی‌داری مدل و اجزای مدل (خطی، درجه دو و اثر متقابل) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. کیفیت مدل برازش شده با استفاده از ضریب تبیین (R2) ارزیابی شد.
نتایج و بحث
نتایج نشان داد که اثر جزء خطی بر تمام صفات مورد مطالعه بجز کارایی تبدیل نیتروژن معنی‌دار بود. اثر جزء درجه دو کامل تمام صفات را به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر قرار داد. اثر متقابل کود نیتروژن و تراکم بوته تنها بر کارایی مصرف نیتروژن معنی‌دار بود. آزمون عدم برازش در مورد هیچ‌کدام از صفات معنی‌دار نشد که این امر نشان‌دهنده برازش مطلوب مدل رگرسیون درجه دو کامل بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه مشاهده شده و پیش‌بینی‌شده به ترتیب برای تراکم 25 بوته در متر مربع و 50 کیلو گرم کود اوره در هکتار و تراکم 25 بوته در متر مربع (52/1320 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و 100 کیلوگرم کود اوره در هکتار (45/1272 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به ترتیب بدست آمد. بیشترین کارایی مصرف نیتروژن مشاهده شده و پیش‌بینی‌شده 41/11 و 28/11 کیلوگرم دانه بر کیلوگرم نیتروژن خاک در تراکم 10 بوته در متر مربع و عدم مصرف نیتروژن محاسبه شد.
نتیجه‌گیری
شیب عملکرد دانه با افزایش تراکم تا 25 بوته در متر مربع افزایش یافت و در مقادیر بالاتر مصرف نیتروژن در مقایسه با سطوح پایین بیشتر بود. مصرف کود نیتروژن از طریق بهبود رشد گیاه موجب افزایش عملکرد دانه در سطوح بالاتر مصرف نیتروژن گردید. با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن کارایی مصرف نیتروژن کاهش یافت. بهینه‌سازی میزان مصرف منابع شامل کود نیتروژن و تراکم بوته با استفاده از طرح مرکب مرکزی می‌تواند به عنوان راهکاری مطلوب در تولید پایدار کنجد مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on yield and nitrogen efficiency indices of sesame using a central composite design

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hoda Latifi 1
  • surur khorramdel 2
  • mahdi Nassiri Mahallati 2
  • Mahmood Reza Farzaneh Belgerdi 1
1 Ferdowsi university, Mashhad, Iran
2 Ferdowsi university, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is known as the king of oil seeds due to the high oil content (50-60%) of its seed.
Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important nutrients in crop production agroecosystems. Excessive application of N in crop production causes a reducing trend in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE).
Optimization of nitrogen and plant density is a management approach to conserve resources and decline environmental pollutions.
Response surface methodology (RSM) is defined as a set of mathematical and statistical techniques that are used to develop, to improve or to optimize a product. RSM is a statistical method for optimization of multiple factors which determine optimum process conditions by combining experimental designs. In this study, optimization of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on yield and nitrogen efficiency indicators of sesame using central composite design (CCD) for RSM was done.

Materials and methods
An experiment was conducted using CCD with 13 treatments and two replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2015-2016. The treatments were allocated based on low and high levels of plant density (10 and 40 plants.m-2, respectively) and nitrogen (0 and 100 kg Urea ha-1, respectively). Seed yield, biological yield, nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen utilization efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency were measured and calculated as dependent variables and changes of these variables were evaluated by a regression model. Lack-of-fit test was used to evaluate the quality of the fitted model. The adequacy of the model was tested by analysis of variance. In general, the full quadratic polynomial equation was tested to determine the significance of the model and the component of the model (linear, squared and first-order interaction terms). The quality of the fitted model was judged using the determination coefficient (R2).

Results and discussion
The results showed that effect of linear component was significant on all studied characteristics except for nitrogen utilization efficiency. Effect of square component was significant on all studied criteria. Interaction effect of full quadratic was significant on nitrogen use efficiency. Lack of fit test had no significant effect on the studied traits. The full square model for the response variables gave insignificant lack-of-fit indicating that the data of experimental were satisfactorily explained. The highest estimated and observed values of seed yield were obtained for 25 plants.m-2 and 500 kg Urea ha-1 (1320.52 kg.ha-1) and 25 plants.m-2 and 100 kg Urea ha-1 (1272.45 kg.ha-1), respectively. The maximum estimated and observed values of nitrogen use efficiency were calculated for 10 plants.m-2 and without N fertilizer with 11.41 and 11.28 kg seed/kg N of soil, respectively.

Conclusion
The slope of seed yield increased by an increase in density up to 25 plants.m-2 was higher under high levels of N fertilizer than under low levels, because the plant growth was improved in high amount of N fertilizer and resulted in high seed yield. By increasing nitrogen fertilizer declined nitrogen use efficiency. In general, it seems that resource use optimization such as nitrogen fertilizer and plant density based on the central composite design may be suitable cropping approach for sustainable production of sesame.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Lack-of-fit test"
  • "Optimization"
  • "Determination coefficient"
  • "Central composite design"
  • "Response surface methodology"
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