عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives: Caber (Capparis spinosa) is the most important species in capparaceae family and is considering as a major medicinal plant. Medicinal usage of this plant are richness of roots, generative buds and fruits for components such as flavonoids’, saponines, pectins, essential oils and specially glycosides and glycosinolates. Considering the importance of Capparis spinose as medicinal plant and its difficulty to reproduction by seed, the present study was performed to optimization of culture conditions for callus induction and regeneration of Caber.
Material and Methods: This research was performed at Bioengineering and biotechnology research center of Esfahan industrial university. In order to do research, cotyledon leaf, leaf, bud, flag, hypocotyl, root, petals, sepals and node explants were cultured in MS medium with different plant growth regulator compositions. Two levels of 2,4-D (2/5, 3 mg l-1) with kinetin (0/1 mg l-1) and 3 levels of NAA (2, 2/5, 3 mg l-1) in combination with BA (0/5 mg l-1) was used for callus induction. This experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 4 replications and 5 explants for each. In order to regenerate shoot from produced calluses, calluses were cultured in MS culture Medium containing hormonal composition of KIN, NAA and IBA with different concentrations.
Results: The results of analysis of variance indicated that the effect of explants and interactions of PGR × explants were significant at 1% for dry an fresh callus weight and callus percentage; However, the effect of changes in growth regulator for the percentage of callus was not significant. Additionally, the all PGR combination were appropriate for callus induction in this study, but different explants from different specimens showed different response to callus production, such that the flag explants had the highest percentage of callus (100%) in all PGR compartments. The results of this study demonstrated that the best PGR combination for callus weight, was MS medium containing 0/02 NAA mg.l-1+1 KIN mg.l-1 (with mean 0/27 mg.l-1) and for mean dry weight of callus, MS medium containing 3 NAA mg.l-1 + 0/5 BAP mg.l-1 and MS containing 0/02 NAA mg.l-1+1 KIN mg.l-1 (with an average of 0/026 and 0/027 mg.l-1 respectively). The best treatment for producing shoots from callus was MS medium containing 2 KIN mg.l-1 (40%) and 2 NAA mg.l-1 (40%). Finally the best treatment for rooting was MS medium containing 1 NAA mg.l-1 (30%).
Conclusion: In this study, the best plant growth regulators and different type of explants, were optimized for callus, shoot and root production for in vitro condition. Based on the results, the flag explant and all of used media were appropriate for the callus induction. The highest rate of shoot production in In vitro culture was observed on MS medium supplemented by NAA (2 mg l-1), KIN (2 mg l-1) and, for the root production in MS medium containing 1 (mg l-1) of NAA. Therefore use of these treatments and explants, which showed the best calcification and highest production of shoots and roots, is recommended to reproduce this plant under in vitro culture conditions.