تاتیر تنش کم‌آبی بر رشد، عملکرد و غلظت آلوئین گیاه دارویی صبر‌ زرد (.Aloe vera L) در تاریخ های مختلف برداشت

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ، دانشکده کشاورزی گروه زراعت

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه زراعت

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: صبر‌زرد یکی از مهم‌ترین و اقتصادی‌ترین گیاه دارویی در بسیاری از کشورهای دنیا می‌باشد که در صنایع غذایی، داروسازی و پزشکی مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد و این گیاه به‌طور گسترده در مناطق گرم و خشک دنیا کشت می‌شود، هدف از این مطالعه ارزیابی تأثیر شدت‌های مختلف تنش کم‌آبی بر میزان رشد، عملکرد و غلظت آلوئین گیاه دارویی صبر‌زرد در دوره‌های مختلف رشد می-باشد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این مطالعه به صورت کرت‌های خردشده در زمان با چهار تکرار، در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تنش کم‌آبی (۲۰، ۴۰، ۶۰، ۸۰% تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی در کل دوره رشد) و زمان‌های مختلف برداشت صبر‌زرد (90، 180 و 270 روز بعد از اعمال تیمارها) که تیمارهای آبیاری به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و زمان‌های برداشت به‌عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. تغییرات رشد، عملکرد و غلظت آلوئین در طول زمان تحت تأثیر تیمارهای مورد مطالعه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد تنش کم‌آبی در همه مراحل رشد باعث کاهش رشد و عملکرد گیاه صبر زرد شد به طوری که بیشترین تعداد، عرض و قطر برگ در تیمار 20 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی به دست آمد که نسبت به تیمار 80 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی که کمترین مقدار را داشت به ترتیب 19، 22 و 16 درصد افزایش نشان داد. همچنین بیش‌ترین ارتفاع گیاه و طول برگ در تیمار 40 درصد تخلیه رطوبت ظرفیت زراعی به دست آمد که در مقایسه با تیمار 80 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی که کمترین مقدار را داشت به ترتیب 16 و 21 درصد بیشتر بودند. بیشترین میزان وزن‌تر برگ و ژل در تیمار 40 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی 270 روز بعد از اعمال تیمار به دست آمد که در مقایسه با تیمار 80 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی به ترتیب 44 و 49 درصد بیشتر بودن.د همچنین نتایج نشان داد تنش کم آبی باعث کاهش تعداد پاجوش شد به طوری که بیشترین تعداد در تیمار 40 درصد تخلیه رطوبت ظرفیت زراعی 90 روز بعد از اعمال تیمارها به دست آمد. غلظت آلوئین و درصد مواد جامد نامحلول در گیاهان با افزایش شدت تنش کم آبی افزایش یافت. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده تنش کم‌آبی باعث افزایش غلظت آلوئین و درصد مواد جامد محلول شد به طوری که بالاترین میزان در تیمار 80 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی به ترتیب 90 و 270 روز بعد از اعمال تیمارها به دست آمد.
نتیجه‌گیری: به‌طورکلی با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده از این تحقیق تنش کم‌آبی باعث کاهش رشد و عملکرد و افزایش غلظت آلوئین و مواد جامد محلول در گیاه صبرزرد گردید. به‌طوری که مناسب‌ترین تیمار 40 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی برای رشد و عملکرد، همچنین 80 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی برای غلظت آلوئین و مواد جامد محلول در هر سه تاریخ برداشت تعیین گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Growth, Yield and Aloin Concentration of Aloe vera L. at different harvesting dates

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Hazrati 1
  • Z. Tahmasebi 1
  • S.A.M. Modares Sanevi 2
  • A. Mokhtasi 2
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: Aloe vera is one of the most economically important medicinal plants in many countries which used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries; it is widely cultivated throughout the arid and semi-arid regions. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of different water stress on growth, yield and aloin concentration during plant growth stages.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted in research greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a split plot in time arrangement of treatments in four replicates. Treatments including water deficit stress (irrigation after depleting of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% field capacity (FC)) and harvesting dates ( 90, 180 and 270 days after imposing the irrigation treatments). Irrigation treatments and harvesting dates were considered as main- and sub-plots, respectively. Growth changes, yield and aloin concentration were evaluated during growing period.
Results: The results demonstrated that the growth and yield values decreased with increasing water stress severity. Generally, the highest number, width and thickness of leaf were observed when the plants were irrigated at 20% FC, which was higher increased by 19, 22 and 16%, respectively compared with irrigation after depleting 80% of the field capacity, respectively. Irrigation at 40% FC increased plant height and leaf length by 16% and 21%, respectively, compared with the irrigation at 80% FC. The highest leaf and gel fresh weight were observed in 270 days after imposing the irrigation at 40% FC which increased by 44 and 49% compared with irrigation at 80% FC. Results also showed that the pup number decreased with increasing water stress, the maximum pup number was observed when plants were irrigated at 40% FC at 90 days after imposing the irrigation treatments. aloin concentration and Total Soluble Solids (TSS) increased in Aloe vera plants under severe water stress. The highest aloin and TSS content was observed when the plants were irrigated at 80% FC at 90 and 270 days after imposing the irrigation treatments, respectively.
Conclusion: In general, severe water stress decreased leaf yield and plant growth while caused a significant increase in aloin concentration and TSS. Finally, irrigation after depleting of 40% of soil water content was the best treatment for growth and yield, also depleting of 80% of soil water content was the best treatment for aloin and TSS during all growth period.
Keywords: Aloe vera, Growth, Field capacity, Yield, Harvest date

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aloe vera
  • growth
  • Field capacity
  • Yield
  • Harvest date
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