اثر پنج پایه بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکی، مکانیکی و شیمیایی میوه‌ی نارنگی رقم جدید یاشار طی مراحل رسیدن

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی گروه فیزیولوژی و تکنولوژی پس از برداشت. موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد زیست شناسی

3 محقق موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی کرج

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: طی برنامه دورگ گیری 20 ساله (1368 تا 1388) بین نارنگی‌های مینولاتانجلو و شانگشا رقم نارنگی یاشار به عنوان رقمی دیررس توسط پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری معرفی شد. با این‌حال نیاز به بررسی ویژگی‌های کیفی و تعیین زمان رسیدن میوه روی پایه‌های مهم بود که طی پژوهشی دو ساله مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت.

مواد و روش‌ها: در این پژوهش اثر پنج پایه (نارنج، پونسیروس، سیتروملو، سیترنج و فلائینگ‌‌دراگون) روی شاخص‌‌های کیفی میوه نارنگی یاشار طی رسیدن به مدت دو سال بررسی شد. نمونه‌‌برداری میوه از اول بهمن تا نیمه اسفند به فاصله زمانی هر دو هفته یک بار (چهار زمان) انجام گرفت. ارزیابی‌ها شامل اندازه‌گیری ابعاد میوه (طول، عرض و ضخامت)، میانگین قطرهای حسابی، هندسی، معادل و هم‌ساز، ضریب رعنایی، کرویت، مساحت رویه، حجم واقعی، حجم ظاهری، خطای حجم، چگالی (دانسیته)، سفتی بافت پوست و گوشت، میزان جابجایی پروب در بافت پوست و گوشت، ضخامت پوست میوه، وزن میوه، درصد عصاره، تعداد بذر، شاخص‌های رنگ پوست (L*، a*،b*، زاویه رنگ، کروما و CCI)، مواد جامد محلول، اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون، شاخص تکنولوژی، pH، EC، فنل‌کل، آسکوربیک اسید و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی بود.

یافته‌ها: میوه‌ی یاشار روی هر پنج پایه از نظر طول، عرض و ضخامت پوست تفاوت معنی‌داری با هم نداشتند. دانسیته میوه طی زمان برداشت روند افزایشی داشت؛ لیکن روی پایه نارنج کمتر از سایر پایه‌ها بود. قطرهای حسابی و هندسی میوه یاشار روی همه پایه‌ها به قطر معادل که واقعی‌ترین قطر میوه است نزدیک بود. ضریب رعنایی و کرویت (مقدار 16/1)، مساحت رویه، حجم واقعی و حجم ظاهری میوه روی پایه فلائینگ‌دراگون بیشتر از سایر پایه‌ها بود (05/0 p

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of five rootstocks on physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of 'Yashar' fruits -a new mandarin- during ripening stages

نویسندگان [English]

  • javad fattahi moghadam 1
  • Seyedeh Elham Seyedghasemi 2
  • Soghra Madani 3
1 Assistant professors, Department of Postharvest Physilogy and Technology. Horticultural Science Research Institute, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
2 Msc. of Biology
3 Researcher of agricultural engineering research institute
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: According to a breeding program carry out in Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center of Iran, Yashar mandarin was created from crossing between Minneola tangelo and Changsha mandarins. Based on previous investigations, we found that Yashar might be a late ripening variety on Sour orange. The quality of this new variety on different commercial rootstocks did not study yet, completely. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Yashar physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics on five commercial rootstocks during two years.

Materials and methods:In this study, the effect of five rootstock (Sour orange, Poncirus, Citrumelo, Citrange and Flaying dragon) on Yashar fruit quality investigated for two years during ripening. Yashar fruit was sampled at last January to early of March period every two weeks (4 times). Various physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics evaluated including fruit lenght, width, thickness; arithmetic, geometric, equivalent and harmonic means; fruit aspect ratio, sphericity, surface area, true volume, apparent volume, volume error, density, peel and pulp firmness, peel thickness, weight, juice percentage, seed number, peel color indices (L*, a*, b*, hue angle, chroma and CCI), total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), technological index (TI), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total phenol, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity during experiment.



Results: The results showed that fruit length, width and thickness of Yashar had not significantly differences on five rootstock. Although fruit density showed an increasing trend during the harvest time but Yashar fruit density on Sour orange was lower than other rootstocks. Arithmetic and geometric means of fruits on all rootstocks were closer to equivalent mean as a really diameter. Variables such aspect ratio, sphericity (1.16), surface area, true volume and apparent volume were higher on Flying dragon than other rootstocks (p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mandarin
  • Yashar
  • Rootstock
  • Harvesting time
1.Aghajanpour, S., Ghasemnejad, M.A. and Faghih-Nasiri, M. 2011. Hesperidin and naringin
amounts of mandarin fruits affected by rootstock and variety. M.Sc. Thesis, Islamic Azad
Univ. of Saveh Branch. (In Persian)
2.Barry, G. and Wyk, A.V. 2006. Low-temperature cold shock may induce rind color
development of Nules ‘Nules Clementine’ (Citrus reticulate Blanco) fruit postharvest.
Biol. Technol. 40: 82-88.
3.Cano, A. and Bermejo, A. 2011. Influence of rootstock and cultivar on bioactive compounds
in citrus peels. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91: 1702-1711.
4.Dou, H. and Gmitter, F. 2007. Postharvest quality and acceptance of LB8-9 mandarin as a
new fresh fruit cultivar. Hort. Technol. 17: 1. 72-77.
5.FAO. 2015. Citrus fruit fresh and processed annual statistics. Commodities and Trade
Division, FAO of the UN, Rome.
6.Fattahi Moghadam, J. and Faghih Nasiri, M. 2005. Guidelines for harvesting, storage, grading
and packing of citrus. Garden J. (In Persian)
7.Fattahi, J., Hamidoghli, Y., Fotouhi, R., Ghasemnejad, M. and Bakhshi, D. 2011. Assessment
of fruit quality and antioxidant activity of three citrus species during ripening. South West
J. Hort. Biol. Env. 2: 2. 113-128.
8.Fattahi Moghadam, J., Hamidoghli, Y., Fotouhi Ghazvini, R., Ghasemnejad, M. and Bakhshi,
D. 2011. Determination of suitable harvesting time based on fruit bioactive compounds and
antioxidant capacity in some citrus cultivars. Iran. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 12: 4. 355-368.
(In Persian)
9.Fotouhi Ghazvini, R. and Fattahi Moghadam, J. 2010. Citrus cultivation in Iran. Guilan Univ.
Press. 350p. (In Persian)
10.Georgiou, A. 2002. Evaluation of rootstocks for ‘Clementine’ mandarin in Cyprus. Sci. Hort.
93: 29-38.
11.Ghasemi, K., Ghasemi Y. and Ebrahimzadeh, M.A. 2009. Antioxidant activity, phenol and
flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pak. J. Pharma. Sci. 22: 3. 277-281.
12.Giovannoni, J.J. 2007. Fruit ripening mutants yield insights into ripening control. Curr Opin
Plant Biol. 10: 3. 283-289.
13.Gmitter, F.G., Grosser, J.W., Castle, W.S. and Moore, G.A. 2007. Comprehensive citrus
genetic improvement programme. In: Khan IA (ed). Citrus Gene. Breeding and Biotech,
CAB int. Oxf. Pp: 9-19.
14.Gorinstein, S., Martin-Belloso, O., Park, Y., Haruenkit, R., Lojek, A., Ciz, M., Caspi, A.,
Libman, I. and Trakhtenberg, S. 2001. Comparison of some biochemical characteristics of
different citrus fruits. Food Chem. 74: 309-315.
15.Hemmati, N., Ghasemnezhad, A., Fattahi Moghadam, J. and Ebrahimi, P. 2015. The role of
rootstock in antioxidant activity of citrus fruit: comparison of antioxidant activity of the
fruits of two commercial citrus varieties with the fruits of four different rootstocks. J. Hort.
Sci. 29: 2. 277-286. (In Persian)
16.Ismail, M.A., Chen, H., Baldwin, E.A. and Plotto, A. 2005. Changes in enzyme-assisted
peeling efficiency and quality of fresh `Valencia' orange and of stored `Valencia' orange and
`Ruby Red' grapefruit. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 118: 403-405.
17.Jimenez, C.M., Cuquerella, J., and Martinez-Javaga, J.M. 1981. Determination of a color
index for citrus fruit degreening. Proc. Int. Soc. Citricul. 2: 750-753.
18.Khan, I.A. and Kender, W.J. 2007. Citrus breeding: Introduction and objectives. In: Khan,
I.A. (ed). Citrus Gen. Breed. Biotech. CAB Int. Oxf. Pp: 1-8.
19.Kluge, R.A., Luiza, M., Jomori, L., Jacomino, A.P., Carolina, M., Vitti, D. and Padula, M.
2003. Intermittent warming in ‘Tahiti’ lime treated with an ethylene Inhibitor. Post. Biol.
Technol. 29: 195-203.
20.Kubota, N., Yakushiji, H., Nishiyama, N., Mimura, H. and Shimamura, K. 2001. Phenolic
content and l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in peach fruit as affected by rootstocks.
J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 70: 2. 151-156.
21.Levaj, B., Uzelac, V.D., Kovacevic, D.B. and Krasnici, N. 2009. Determination of
flavonoids in pulp and peel of mandarin fruits. Agric. Conspec. Sci. 74: 221-225.
22.Li, B.B., Smith, B. and Hossain, M.M. 2006. Extraction of phenolics from citrus peels. I.
Solvent extraction method. Sep. Purif. Technol. 48: 182-188.
23.Raveh, E., Saban, T., Zipi, H. and Beit-Yannai, E. 2009. Influence of rootstock and scion on
antioxidant capacity of juice from new pomelo and mandarin varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric.
89: 1825-1830.
24.Ray, P.K. 2002. Breeding tropical and subtropical fruits. Springer-Verlag Narosa Publishing
House. 354p.
25.Razavi, M.A. and Akbari, R. 2009. Biophysical properties of agricultural products and
foodstuffs. Jahad Daneshgahi of Mashad Univ. Press. 304p.
26.Roux, S. and Barry, G. 2006. Preharvest manipulation of rind pigments of Citrus spp.
MS Thesis, Department of Hort. Sci. Stellenbosch Univ.
27.Singh, K.K. and Reddy, B.S. 2006. Post-harvest physico-mechanical properties of orange
peel and fruit. J. Food. Eng. 73: 112-120.
28.Tazima, Z.H., Neves, C.S.V.J., Yada, I.F.U. and Junior, R.P.L. 2013. Performance of
‘Okitsu’ Satsuma mandarin on nine rootstocks. Sci. Agric. 70: 422-42.
29.Tounsi, M.S., Wannes, W.A., Ouerghemmi, I., Jegham, S., Ben Njima, Y., Hamdaoui, G.,
Zemni, H. and Marzouk, B. 2011. Juice components and antioxidant capacity of four
Tunisian citrus varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91: 142-151.
30.Wang, Y.C., Chuang, Y.C. and Ku, Y.H. 2007. Quantitation of bioactive compounds in
citrus fruits cultivated in Taiwan. Food Chem. 102: 1163-1171.
31.Xu, G., Liu, D., Chen, J., Ye, X., Maa, Y. and Shi, J. 2008. Juice components and
antioxidant capacity of citrus varieties cultivated in China. Food Chem. 106: 545-551.
32.Zekri, M. 2000. Citrus rootstocks affect scion nutrition, fruit quality, growth, and economical
return. Hort. Sci. 55: 231-239.
33.Zhang, H. 2007. Electrical properties of foods. USA. 1: 485.