ارزیابی ترسیب کربن و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی مزارع زعفران (مطالعه موردی: استان خراسان رضوی)

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 عضو هیات علمی پژوهشکده صنایع غذایی

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

مقدمه
افزایش غلظت دی اکسید کربن در اتمسفر، موجب افزایش توجه به بهبود ذخایر کربن خاک در اگرواکوسیستم‌ها به منظور تخفیف اثرات تغییر اقلیم و گرمای جهانی و بهبود کیفیت خاک شده است. مخازن کربن آلی خاک (SOC) نشاندهنده تعادل پویایی از ورودی‌ها و تلفات کربن است. تبدیل اکوسیستم‌های طبیعی به اگرواکوسیستم‌ها باعث تخلیه مخازن کربن آلی خاک می‌شود. این تلفات در شرایط خروجی کربن بالاتر در مقایسه با ورودی آن و تخریب خاک تشدید می‌شود. اکوسیستم‌های خشکی سهم زیادی در غنی‌سازی دی اکسید کربن اتمسفری دارند.
ترسیب کربن به معنای انتقال دی اکسید کربن اتمسفر به مخازن زنده و حفظ آن برای جلوگیری از تلفات سریع آن است. بنابراین، ترسیب کربن خاک به معنای افزایش مخازن کربن آلی و غیرآلی از طریق عملیات کاربری زمین و مدیریت زراعی توصیه شده می‌باشد.
اهداف این مطالعه تعیین ضرایب تبدیل، وزن خشک، کربن آلی، ترسیب کربن اندام‌های هوایی و زیرزمینی و برآورد انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای مزارع زعفران در استان خراسان رضوی بود.
مواد و روش‌ها
این آزمایش در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی در سال 1395 انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری به روش تصادفی- سیستماتیک از 10 مزرعه در قالب 30 پلات 5/0 متر مربعی در طول سه ترانسکت 50 متری اجرا گردید. اندام‌های زیرزمینی با استفاده از سیلندر نمونه‌برداری و سپس از خاک به طور کامل جدا شدند. بعد از نمونه‌برداری، اندام‌های هوایی (شامل گل و برگ) از اندام‌های زیرزمینی (شامل فلس و بنه) به ترتیب برای اندازه‌گیری زیست‌توده اندام هوایی و زیرزمینی جدا شدند. اندام‌های هوایی و زیرزمینی به طور کامل برای رسیدن به وزن ثابت خشک و به عنوان وزن ماده خشک ارائه گردید. برای تعیین ضرایب تبدیل اندام‌های هوایی و زیرزمینی از روش احتراق به طور جداگانه استفاده شد. سپس پتانسیل ترسیب کربن اندام‌های هوایی و زیرزمینی زعفران و خاک اندازه‌گیری شد.
در نهایت، پس از محاسبه میزان انتشار گازهای گلخانه‏ای شامل دی‌ اکسید کربن (CO2)، اکسید نیتروژن (N2O) و متان (CH4) با استفاده از ضرایب انتشار، پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی تعیین گردید.
به منظور آنالیز داده‌ها، آنالیز واریانس و مقایسه میانگین با روش روش حداقل اختلاف معنی‌دار با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SAS 9.3 انجام شد.
یافته‌ها
بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، وزن خشک، محتوی کربن آلی، ضرایب تبدیل و ترسیب کربن اندام‌های هوایی و زیرزمینی زعفران به طور معنی‌داری متفاوت بودند (01/0p≤). میانگین عملکرد اندام‌های زیرزمینی بالاتر از اندام‌های هوایی بود. بالاترین و پایین‌ترین ترسیب کربن اندام‌های هوایی و زیرزمینی به ترتیب برای بنه و گل با 83/5 و 14/0 تن در هکتار محاسبه شد. بیشترین مجموع انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای برای سوخت‌های فسیلی 78/39 کیلوگرم معادل دی‌اکسید کربن به ازای یک هکتار و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی برابر با 21/7 تن معادل دی اکسید کربن به ازای یک هکتار محاسبه گردید.
نتیجه‌گیری
بدین‌ترتیب، مدیریت ارگانیک و مصرف بقایای گیاهی و کودهای دامی و آلی را می‌توان به عنوان راهکارهای اکولوژیک در جهت بهبود پتانسیل ترسیب کربن مزارع زعفران مدنظر قرار داد که از طریق کاهش انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای، تخفیف تغییر اقلیم را نیز تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the potential of carbon sequestration and global warming potential for saffron fields (Case study: Khorasan-e Razavi Province)

چکیده [English]

Introduction
Increases in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere have prompted renewed interest in enhancing the soil pools of carbon in the agroecosystems to mitigate climate change and global warming and also improve quality of soil. The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool represents a dynamic equilibrium of gains and losses of carbon. Conversion of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems causes depletion of the SOC pools. The depletion is intensified when the output of carbon exceeds the input and when soil degradation is intensity. Terrestrial ecosystems contributed to atmospheric CO2 enrichment.
Carbon sequestration implies transferring atmospheric CO2 into long-lived pools and storing it securely so it is not immediately loosed. Thus, soil carbon sequestration means improving SOC and soil inorganic carbon pools through land use and recommended management practices.
Our purposes were to determine a set of coefficients for calculating conversion coefficients, dry weight, organic carbon and carbon sequestration of above-ground and below-ground tissues for saffron in Khorasan-e Razavi province.

Materials and Methods
A survey experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design during 2016. Sampling was performed with random-systematic method from 10 fields by using 30 plots of 0.5 m2 and along three transects of 50 m. Below-ground tissues by using cylinder were manually sampled and then separated from the soil. After sampling, the above-ground tissues (such as flower and leaf) were separated from below-ground tissues (including tunic and corm) as to measure the above-ground and below-ground biomasses, respectively. Above-ground and below-ground biomasses were separately dried to constant weight and expressed on a dry matter basis. Conversion coefficients of above- ground and below- ground tissues were determined with combustion method separately. Then, sequestration carbon potential for above- ground and below- ground tissues of saffron and soil were computed.
Final, after the calculation of emission for greenhouse gases including CO2, N2O and CH4 based on emission indices, global warming potential (GPW) were calculated.
For statistical analysis, analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) were performed using SAS version 9.3.

Results
The results showed that dry weights, organic carbon contents, conversion coefficients and carbon sequestration for above- ground and below- ground tissues of saffron were significantly different. Biomass of below- ground tissues were higher than above- ground tissues. The highest and lowest carbon sequestration for above- ground and below- ground tissues were calculated for corm and flower with 5.83 and 0.14 t.ha-1, respectively. The highest emission of greenhouse gas was belonged to fossil fuels with 39.78 kg. Equiv. CO2 and GWP was computed 7.21 t Equiv. CO2 per one ha.

Conclusion
It is therefore concluded that organic management and use of crop residues, cow manure and organic fertilizers seems to be a rational ecological approach for sustainable management of saffron agroecosystem with a consequence of reduction in greenhouse gases and mitigation of climate change.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Greenhouse emission
  • Climate Change
  • Cow manure
  • Ecological approach
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