اثر تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بوته بر عملکرد گل و برخی صفات مهم زراعی گل‌گاوزبان اروپایی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان

2 گروه زراعت دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان، ایران

3 گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی.دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: گل‌گاوزبان اروپایی (Borago officinalis L.) گیاهی یکساله و متعلق به خانواده بوراژیناسه‌ است که دارای خواص درمانی می‌باشد. افزایش گرایش مردم به طرف گیاهان دارویی برای مداوای بیماری‌ها، کشت انواع گیاهان دارویی را در سطح جهان و ایران ضروری ساخته است. تولید گیاهان دارویی همانند دیگر گیاهان تحت تأثیر عوامل زراعی نظیر تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بوته در متر مربع قرار می‌گیرد. برای هر محصول تاریخ کاشت مطلوبی وجود داشته که به تأخیر افتادن آن معمولاً موجب کاهش عملکرد می‌شود. تراکم مطلوب بوته‌های سالم در سطح مزرعه پایه و اساس یک سیستم زراعی محسوب می‌شود (1). بدین ترتیب، این آزمایش به‌منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بوته بر عملکرد گل و برخی صفات مهم زراعی گل‌گاوزبان اروپایی انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده با طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار در سال زراعی 96-1395 در دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایشی شامل پنج تاریخ کاشت به عنوان عامل اصلی (15 مهر، 5 و 25 آبان، 15 آذر و 5 دی) و چهار تراکم (6، 10، 14 و 18 بوته در متر مربع) به عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. صفات مورد مطالعه در این تحقیق شامل عملکرد گل خشک، تعداد شاخه‌ گل‌دهنده در بوته، تعداد گل در متر مربع، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد برگ در بوته، شاخص سطح برگ، وزن خشک برگ و ساقه و درصد روغن بودند. تجزیه واریانس تمام صفات آزمایشی با استفاده از نرم افزار SAS، انجام گرفت. مقایسه میانگین‌ها با استفاده از آزمون چند دامنه‌ای دانکن، در سطح آماری پنج درصد انجام گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بوته بر ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه‌ گلدهنده در بوته، تعداد گل در متر مربع، عملکرد گل خشک و وزن خشک ساقه گل‌گاوزبان اروپایی معنی‌دار بود. همچنین برهمکنش تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بوته بر تعداد برگ در بوته، شاخص سطح برگ و وزن خشک برگ معنی‌دار بود. تأخیر در تاریخ کاشت سبب کاهش اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه شد. تاریخ کاشت 15 مهر با عملکرد گل خشک 08/72 گرم در متر مربع، بهترین تاریخ کاشت بود. با افزایش تراکم، درصد روغن کاهش و ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک ساقه و عملکرد گل به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. به‌طوری که بیشترین عملکرد گل خشک با میانگین 63/58 گرم در متر مربع در تراکم 14 بوته در متر مربع به دست آمد. همچنین تاریخ کاشت 15 مهر در تراکم 18 بوته در متر مربع، بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ و وزن خشک برگ و تاریخ کاشت 15 مهر در تراکم 6 بوته در متر مربع، بیشترین تعداد برگ را به خود اختصاص داد.
نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش تاریخ کاشت 15 مهر و تراکم 14 بوته در متر مربع، به دلیل افزایش عملکرد گل خشک برای کشت گل‌گاوزبان اروپایی در منطقه مناسب می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of sowing dates and plant densities on flower yield and some important agronomical characteristics of European borage

نویسندگان [English]

  • hadis hasanvand 1
  • Sayed ataolah Siadat 2
  • Abdulmahdi Bakhshandeh 2
  • mohamad reza moradi telavat 2
  • adel poshtdar 3
1 Agricultural and Natural Resources University Ramin Khuzestan
2 Department of Agronomy, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, Iran
3 Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual plant and belongs to the Boraginasea family, that afford curative properties. Increasing people's tendency toward medicinal plants to treat diseases has conduct to and essential the cultivation of medicinal plants globally and in Iran. The production of medicinal plants like other plants is influenced by environmental factors such as sowing date and plant density per m-2. There is optimal sowing date for each crop and delay causs reducing of yield. Optimum plant density at farm is foundation of farming system (1). Thus, this experiment carried out in order to study the effect of sowing date and plant density on flower yield and some important agronomical characteristics of Borage (Borago officinalis).
Materials and methods: A field study was conducted as a split plot arrangement based on randomized complete blocks design (RCB) with three replications at farm at experimental field of Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Iran during 2016-2017 cropping season. Five sowing date (15 October, 5 and 25 November, 15 December and 5 January) as main plat and four plant densities including of 6, 10, 14 and 18 plant per m-2 as sub plots comprised experimental treatment. Dry flower yield, number of flowering branche per plant, number of flowers per m2, plant height, number of leaf per plant, leaf area index, dry weight of leaves and stems and oil percent of Borage were measured. Analysis of variance and comparison of means was performed by SAS software and test (Duncan), 5% level probability. Respectively.
Results: The result of analysis of variance showed that sowing date and plant density had significant effect on plant height, flowering branches per plant, number of flowers per m2, dry flower yield and dry weight of stems. Also interaction effect of sowing date and plant densities on number of leaf per plant, leaf area index and dry weight of leaves was significant. Delaying in sowing date decreased the majority studied traits. 15 October is the best date with 72.08 gr m-2 (dry flower yield). Increasing of plant density was reduced oil percent and increased plant height, dry weight of stems and flower yield. so that the highest dry flower yield was achieved with an average of 58.63 gr m-2 at a density with 14 plant per m-2. Sowing dates of 15 October at 18 plants per m-2 had the highest leaf area index and dry weight of leaves and sowing dates of 15 October at 6 plant per m-2 had the highest number of leaf per plant.
Conclusion: For the highest dry flower yield results showed that in Ahvaz climate, the best sowing date for borago was 15 October and the best planting density was 14 plant per m-2.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Borage
  • Leaf area index
  • Oil percent
  • Yield components
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