اثر سطح کمپوست بر جذب برخی عناصر کم مصرف و ارتباط آن با شاخص‏های فیزیولوژیکی زعفران

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیت علمی گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) یکی از با ارزش ترین گیاهان دارویی و ادویه‏ای در جهان محسوب می‏شود، که در بیشتر مناطق کشور به علت نیاز آبی کم این محصول و سازگاری مناسب آن با شرایط محیطی، امکان کشت این گیاه وجود دارد.
مدیریت کود یک عامل مهم در موفقیت کشت گیاهان ادویه‌ای و دارویی محسوب می‌شود و عناصر غذایی نقش قابل توجهی در افزایش عملکرد زعفران دارد. کمپوست زباله شهری به عنوان یک کود آلی علاوه بر اینکه حاوی عناصر پر مصرف و کم مصرف می‏باشد، قابلیت دسترسی این عناصر را نیز افزایش می‏دهد. بنابراین این پژوهش به منظور ارزیابی اثر کمپوست بر جذب عناصر غذایی کم مصرف (آهن، روی، مس و منگنز) در اندام های گیاهی زعفران و رابطه آن با صفات زراعی و عملکرد انجام شد.
مواد و روش‏ها: آزمایش در سال‌های زراعی 1395- 1394 در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل چهار سطح کمپوست زباله شهری (0، 5، 10 و 20 تن در هکتار) با سه تکرار بود. صفات اندازه‏گیری شده شامل غلظت عناصر کم مصرف در (خاک، برگ، بنه و کلاله زعفران)، رنگیزه‏های فتوسنتزی (کلروفیلa، b، کاروتنوئید و کلروفیل کل) و صفات زراعی (وزن برگ تر و خشک، عملکرد و متوسط وزن گل تر و عملکرد کلاله خشک) بود.
یافته‏ها: نتایج نشان داد کمپوست زباله شهری تاثیر معنی‏داری بر میزان غلظت عناصر مس، آهن و منگنز (خاک، بنه و کلاله) زعفران نسبت به شاهد داشت، بیشترین غلظت آهن (038/3 و 334/4 میلیگرم بر کیلوگرم)، منگنز (980/1 و 116/3 میلیگرم بر کیلوگرم) و مس (094/1 و 802/1 میلیگرم بر کیلوگرم) گل و بنه در سطح 20 تن در هکتار کمپوست زباله شهری و کمترین میزان این صفات در سطح شاهد به دست آمد. غلظت عنصر روی خاک و برگ نیز با مصرف کمپوست زباله شهری نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. بیشترین میزان غلظت عنصر روی (633/1 و 240/1 میلیگرم بر کیلوگرم) خاک و برگ به ترتیب با کاربرد 20 و 10 تن در هکتار کمپوست زباله شهری مشاهده شد. همچنین نتایج بیانگر تاثیر معنی‏دار کمپوست زباله شهری بر کاروتنوئید و کلروفیل کل برگ، عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران بود. بیشترین عملکرد گل و کلاله در سطح 10 تن در هکتار کمپوست زباله شهری به دست آمد.
نتیجه گیری: به طور کلی نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد، مصرف کمپوست به دلیل وجود عناصر غذایی (پرمصرف و کم ‏مصرف) در ترکیب خود و افزایش جذب آنها توسط زعفران، سبب افزایش صفات زراعی و عملکرد این گیاه در این آزمایش شد، که در مجموع تیمار ۵ تن در هکتار کمپوست، بعنوان بهترین تیمار در این آزمایش مشخص گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of compost levels on micro elements uptake and relationship with physiological traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and objectives: The most expensive medicinal spicy plant in the Middle East countries is saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Saffron is prepared from dried, bright red stigma .and its value is determined by the color compounds, carotenoids, crocin, and other crocetinglocosyl ester, slightly bitter flavor, picrocrocin, and pleasant aroma, safranal. Nutrition management is one of the main agronomic factor affecting chemical properties and yield of saffron. Municipal waste compost is one natural fertilizer which moreover contain micro elements and compost to be increased ability this elements. Therefore the effects of application of municipal waste compost on uptake micro elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg) in saffron plant and relation with arable characteristics and yield of saffron were evaluated under field conditions.
Materials and methods: This experiment was carried out based on a randomized completely block design with three replications in research farm of University of Birjand, Iran, during cropping year 2015-2016. Treatments were four levels municipal waste compost (0, 5, 10 and 20 t.ha-1). The measured indices were included of concentration of micro elements (soil, leaf, corm and stigma), pigments photosynthesis (chl a, b and total and carotenoids) and arable characteristics (leaf fresh and dry weight, flower fresh yield and dry yield of stigma). Finally, data analysis was done using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test at 5% level of probability.
Results: Results showed that municipal waste compost rate improved the concentration of Cu, Fe and Mn of soil, corm and stigma of saffron beside control. The highest concentration Fe (3.038 and 4.334 mg. kg-1), Mn (1.980 and 3.116 mg.kg-1) and Cu (1.094 and 1.802 mg.kg-1) of flower and corm were obtained in plants treated with 20 t.ha-1 municipal waste compost while the lowest values were recorded in the control. Also results showed that municipal waste compost improved the concentration Zn of soil and leaf beside control. The highest concentration Zn (1.633 and 1.240 mg.kg-1) of soil and leaf were obtained in plants treated with 20 and 10 t.ha-1 municipal waste compost. Leaf carotenoids and total chlorophyll, flower and stigma yield were influenced by municipal waste compost treatments. The highest flower and stigma yield were obtained in plants treated with 10 t.ha-1 municipal waste compost.
Conclusion: Thus, results showed that municipal waste compost has significant impact on uptake micro elements of saffron soil and plant. Municipal waste compost hereby improved the arable and yield characteristics of saffron under field conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iron
  • Micro elements
  • Carotenoides
  • Stigma yield
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