اثر بیوچار پوسته برنج بر رشد و غلظت عناصر غذایی کم مصرف ریحان مقدس (Ocimum sanctum L.) تحت تنش آبی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش مهندسی علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، بخش علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: بیوچار به عنوان اصلاح کننده آلی خاک، سبب بهبود ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک، افزایش فراهمی عناصر غذایی، کاهش گازهای گلخانه‌ای، کاهش آبشویی عناصر و در نهایت افزایش تولیدات زراعی می‌شود. تنش رطوبتی نیز یکی از مهمترین عوامل محدود کننده رشد گیاهان است. خاک های مناطق خشک حاوی مقدار کمی مواد آلی بوده و به دلیل پ هاش بالا، با مشکل کمبود عناصر کم‌مصرف روبه‌رو هستند؛ بنابراین این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثر بیوچار پوسته برنج بر رشد و غلظت عناصر کم‌مصرف در ریحان مقدس تحت تنش آبی (Ocimum sanctum L.) انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش در قالب فاکتوریل 3× 3 به صورت کاملاً تصادفی و با سه تکرار در شرایط گلخانه‌ای انجام شد. تیمارها شامل سه سطح رطوبتی (100 (شاهد)، 75 و 55 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه) و سه سطح بیوچار پوسته برنج (صفر، 2 و 4 درصد وزنی) بود. تعداد 10 بذر ریحان مقدس در هر گلدان کشت شد و پس از سه هفته تعداد گیاهان به شش بوته در هر گلدان تنک شد. سطوح تنش رطوبتی با وزن کردن گلدان ها، روزانه در طول دوره رشد گلدان‌ها اعمال شد. حدود 12 هفته پس از کاشت، شاخص سبزینگی با دستگاه کلروفیل متر دستی SPAD 502، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد گل آذین و سپس عناصر غذایی کم مصرف در اندام هوایی گیاه اندازه گیری شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که اعمال تنش رطوبتی به مقدار 75 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه، اثر معنی‌داری بر وزن خشک گیاه ریحان مقدس نداشت اما تنش 55 درصدی رطوبت، سبب کاهش معنی‌دار وزن خشک گیاه (7/39 درصد) گردید. اعمال تنش رطوبتی 55 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه همچنین، موجب کاهش معنی‌دار وزن تر گیاه (5/49 درصد)، ارتفاع (5/29 درصد)، تعداد گل آذین (9/38 درصد) و تعداد شاخه فرعی گیاه (8/17 درصد) در مقایسه با شاهد شد اما افزایش شاخص سبزینگی برگ را به همراه داشت. علاوه بر این تنش رطوبتی 55 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه موجب کاهش میانگین غلظت عناصر روی (5/39 درصد) و مس (3/43 درصد) و افزایش میانگین غلظت عناصر آهن (7/29 درصد) و منگنز (2/28 درصد) در اندام هوایی شد. کاربرد بیوچار پوسته برنج سبب افزایش غلظت منگنز در اندام هوایی گیاه نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد اما اثر معنی داری بر وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی گیاه ریحان مقدس نداشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان داد که اعمال تنش رطوبتی به مقدار 75 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه اثر معنی داری بر وزن خشک گیاه ریحان مقدس نداشت. بنابراین کم آبیاری می تواند به عنوان یک استراتژی مناسب در شرایط کم آبی مورد توجه قرار گیرد. همچنین کاربرد بیوچار پوسته برنج به طور معنی داری غلظت منگنز را افزایش داد اما احتمالاً به‌دلیل نوع بیوچار بکاربرده شده و سطح کاربرد آن بر وزن خشک اثری نداشته است. پیشنهاد می شود تحقیقات بیشتری در مورد اثر بیوچارهای حاصل از مواد اولیه دیگر و در سطوح دیگری از بیوچار انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of rice husk biochar on growth and micronutrients concentration of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) under water stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedigheh Safarzadeh Shirazi 1
  • Zahra Zibaei 2
  • Pouya Ostovar 2
1 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 PhD. Student. Department of Soil Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Backgrounds and objectives: Biochar as a soil amendment improves soil physical and chemical properties, increase nutrient availability, decrease greenhouse gases, reduce nutrient leaching and ultimately increase crop production. Drought stress is one of the most important factors that limit plants growth. Arid lands have a little organic matter, and because of high pH, micronutrients deficiency was observed in these soils. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rice husk biochar and water stress on the growth and micronutrients concentration of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.).
Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in a factorial 3×3 arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications under greenhouse conditions. Treatments consisted of three soil moisture levels (100 (blank), 75, and 55, % of field capacity) and three rice husk biochar levels (0, 2 and 4% W). 10 holy basil seeds were sown in each pot and thinned to six uniform seedlings per pot after 3 weeks. Then, moisture levels applied by weighting the pot each day at growing period. 12 weeks after emergence, SPAD values, shoots height, number of inflorescences, and number of branches and micronutrients concentration in aerial part of plant was determined.
Results: Results showed that 75 % of field capacity (FC) did not have a significant effect on dry weight of holy basil plant but shoot dry weight in 55% FC significantly decreased by about 39.7%. Water stresses (55 % of FC) also reduced wet weight, shoot height, number of inflorescences, and number of branches by 49.5, 29.5, 38.9 and 17.8 % as compared to the control, respectively, but increased SPAD values. In 55 % of FC, the average of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentration significantly decrease by 43.31 and 39.5%, respectively; but the average of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentration significantly increased by 29.72 and 28.2%, in plant shoots. Generally, application of rice husk biochar significantly reduced the average of shoots zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentration while it increased manganese (Mn) concentration but did not have a significant effect on dry and wet weight of holly basil.
Conclusion: Results indicated that 75 % of field capacity (FC) did not have a significant effect on dry weight of holy basil plant. Therefore, deficit irrigation can be considered as a suitable strategy in water limited conditions. Also application of rice husk biochar significantly increase the average of shoots manganese (Mn) concentration but had no effects on dry weight probably due to short term of plant growth, type of biochar, and biochor levels. More investigation using another biochar at other different levels is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water stress
  • Biochar
  • Ocimum sanctum L
  • Plant growth
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