عنوان مقاله [English]
Olive is one of the oldest trees. High compatibility, dual use (oil and table olive), and many healing properties have led to a sharp rise in olive cultivation. The quality and quantity of oil and table olive fruits derived from olive fruit are influenced by many factors. Among these factors, we can mention the climate impact, irrigation effect, duration and conditions of fruit storage, oil extraction, and table olive process, packaging and storage conditions. These factors affect the final product by affecting photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, mesophilic conduction, total phenol, proline, and leaf elements. One of the most important factors affecting these traits is the existence of differences between the cultivars in terms of these variables. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the photosynthetic properties, gas exchange, elements and leaf compositions of Mastoidis, Manzanilla, Jolat and Mari olive planned and implemented.
Materials and methods: This research was conducted in year 1395 in a completely randomized design with four levels (Mastoidis, Manzanilla, Jolat and Mari) and three replications at Tarom olive station in Zanjan province. The measured traits were: photosynthesis, leaf temperature, transpiration, water use efficiency, photosynthetic active radiation, Difference in atmospheric CO2 concentration with the stomatal chamber, carbon dioxide under the stomata, Difference in atmospheric H2O concentration with the stomatal chamber, Stomatal conduction, mesophyll conduction, chlorophyll index, total phenol, proline, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium leaves of olive trees.
Results: It was found that Mari cultivar had significantly higher photosynthesis than other cultivars, also, this cultivar showed the highest amount of transpiration, and at the opposite point, the Mastoidis cultivar had the lowest transpiration rate. Mastoids and Jolat cultivars significantly improved the water use efficiency of the two other cultivars. Mari cultivar had the highest stomatal conductance, and Jolat cultivar showed the most mesophilic conductance. Mari cultivars had the highest total phenol content in their leaves, and the Mastoidis cultivar showed the lowest total phenol content in leaves. The Mastoidis, Manzanilla and Mari cultivars had the highest proline content. Mastoidis, Manzanilla and Jolat had more phosphorus content in their leaves. Jolat had the highest amount of potassium in its leaves.
Conclusion: These results showed that Mari cultivar had a high amount of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, total phenol and proline, and it was suitable for these traits. also, Jolat cultivar with high water use efficiency, mesophilic conductivity and macro elements were also suitable for planting, especially in areas suffering from water scarcity.