Genetic Diversity of Salvia santolinifolia Boiss Ecotypes Growing in Hormozgan Province Using Morphological Traits

Document Type : scientific research article


1 M.Sc. Student, Dept. of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2 2Assistant Prof., Dept. of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Hormozagan, Bandar Abbas, Iran,

3 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Hormozagan, Bandar Abbas, Iran


Background and Objectives: Salvia santolinifolia Boiss. is a perennial and aromatic plant which belongs to Lamiaceae family and grows wild in south of Iran. It is used indigenously for various purposes including hemorrhoid, hypertension, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrhea treatments. Due to the drought stress of recent years and the limited spread as well as extensive harvesting of S. santolinifolia from natural habitats, conservation of its germplasm is too important. In current study, genetic diversity of some wild populations of S. santolinifolia grown in Hormozgan province was studied based on morphological markers for use in breeding programs and potential assessment of this plant in natural environment.
Materials and methods: In order to study the diversity of morphological and functional traits of different ecotypes in Hormozgan province, 120 genotypes belong to four ecotypes (including Abmah, GhotbAbad, Dorahi-Meymand and Sirmand) were collected in a nested design at flowering stage in winter and spring of 2018. 20 vegetative and reproductive characteristics such as plant height, plant width, leaf length, leaf width, branch number, number of flowering branches and inflorescence length were investigated. Data were analyzed using SAS, R and SPSS softwares. For cluster analysis, the cluster analysis was performed by input method and factor analysis was done using the Variomax rotation method.
Results: The results of variance analysis showed that significant differences (p≤0.01, 0.05) were found among the studied S. santolinifolia ecotypes for studied traits. Some morphological characteristics such as plant height, diameter of canopy, branch number, subdivision number, leaf length, leaf width and inflorescence length were significant at 1% probability level. The main stem diameter was significantly different at the 5% probability level. Genetic diversity indices such as Margalef, Shannon-Weiner and Simpson for estimating diversity within ecotypes in S. santolinifolia revealed that all four ecotypes had high diversity within ecotypes. The branch number (58.25%). diameter of canopy (50.11%), number of flowering branches (49.64%), dried weight (48.54%) and fresh weight (47.43%) had the highest diversity among studied ecotypes. The highest plant height was in Sirmand ecotype, the highest diameter of canopy and branch number were in GhobAbad ecotype, the highest leaf length and leaf width were showed in Sirmand and GhobAbad ecotypes and finally, the highest inflorescence length was in Dorahi-Meymand ecotype. The correlation coefficients between evaluated traits showed significant positive and negative correlations between some important traits. PCA analysis results demonstrated that studied characteristics divided in 6 groups which justified 68.44% of the total variance. Cluster analysis divided the four ecotypes into two independent groups. The two ecotypes of Abmah and Qotbabad were in one group, while Sirmand and Meimand ecotypes were in another group.
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that there is high morphological diversity among the wild growing S. santolinifolia ecotypes in Hormozgan province which can be very valuable for use in breeding programs in order to create high quality and desirable food industries and the medicine was used.


 1.Ahmad, H.M., Ahsan, M., Ali, Q. and Javad, I. 2012. Genetic variability, heritability and correlation studies of various quantitative traits mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) at different radiation levels. IRJM. 11: 352-362.
2.Azarkish, P., Moghdam, M., Vaeze. J., Peirbalote. A.GH. and Davarenzhad. GH.H. 2017. Genetic diversity of ecotypes of Horse Mint (Mentha longifolia) in southwest of Iran using morphological traits. Seed Plant Imp. J.1: 32. 311-329. (In Persian)
3.Babalar, M., Khoshsokhan, F., Fattahi Moghaddam, M.R. and Pourmeidani, A. 2013. An evaluation of the morphological diversity and oil content in some populations of (Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen). Iran. J. Hort. Sci.44: 119-128. (In Persian)
4.Behera, T.K., Gaikward, A.B., Singh, A.K. and Staub, J.E. 2008. Relative efficiency of DNA markers (RAPD, ISSR and AFLP) in detecting genetic diversity of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). J. Sci. Food Agric. 88: 733-737.
5.Bos, I. and Caligari, P. 2008. Selection methods in plant breeding. Springer Publication, 465p.
6.Carena, M.J., Hallauer, A.R. and Miranda Filho, J.B. 2010. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0766-0.
7.Eghlim, G.H., Hadian, J. and Motallb Azar, A.R. 2018. Surver on diversity of morphological and biological production traits of Satureja rechingeri Jamzad clones in Dezfood climate. Plant Prod.40: 4. 41-53. (In Persian)
8.Esmaeilpour, M., Taheri Abkenar, K., Aalami, A. and Bonyad, A. 2014.The pattern of intrapopulational and interpopulational changes of Betula pendula in Iran, based on leaf morphological traits. T.B.J. 18: 6. 33-44. (In Persian)
9.Fattahi, B., Nazeri, V. and Kalantari, S. 2014. Evaluation of different ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Bios. in Iran. J. Crop Prod. Pro. 4: 133-148. (In Persian)
10.Habibi, N., Nemati, S.H., Azizi Arani, M. and Aroiee, H. 2019. Investigation and selection among native populations of Flixweed (Descurainia sophia) of Khorasan Razavi province for yieldand yield components under greenhouse condition. App. Fi. Crops Res.32: 2. 60-75. (In Persian)
11.Herraiz-Pen˜alver, D., Asensio-S Manzanera, M.S., Herrero, B., Martin, H., Santiago, Y., Zalacaı´n, A., Berruga, M.I. and Sa´nchez-Vioque, R. 2017. Evaluation of the morphological variability in Iberian Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl accessions. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. DOI 10.1007/s10722-017-0545-x.
12.Jackson, J.E. 1991. A user’s guide to principal components. Wiley, New York.
13.Jaynes, D.B., Kaspar, T.C., Colvin, T.S. and James, D.E. 2003. Cluster analysis of spatio temporal corn yield (atterns in a lowa field). Agron. J. 95: 574-586.
14.Kaya, A., Goger, F. and Baser, K.H.C. 2007. Morphological, anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia halophile endemic to Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 25: 6. 351-358.
15.Mahdjoub, M.M., Zemouri, T., Benmouhoub, H. and Sahnoune, M. 2018. Morphological, karyological and biogeographical study of the Algerian endemic species Salvia jaminianade Noé (Lamiaceae), with taxonomic and evolutionary interpretations. Flora.242: 102-119.
16.Margalef, R. 1958. Information theory in ecology. Gen. Sys. J. 3: 36-71.
17.Moghaddam, M., Omidbeaigi, R., Saleimi, A. and Naghavi, M.R. 2014. Assessment of genetic diversity among Iranian populations of basil (Ocimum sp.) using morphological traits. Iranian J. Hort. Sci. 44: 3. 227-243. (In Persian)
18.Mossi, A.J., Cansian, R.L., Paroul, N., Toniazzo, G., Oliveira, J.V., Pierozan, M.K., Pauletti, G., Rota, L., Santos, A.C.A. and Serafini, L.A. 2011. Morphological characterization and agronomical parameters of different species of Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae). Braz. J. Biol. 71: 1. 121-129.
19.Mozaffarian, V. 2007. A dictionary of Iranian plants names. Farhang Moaser, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
20.Naghavi, M.R., Ghareyazie, B. and Hosseini Salekdeh, G.H. 2007. Molcular markers. Tehran University Press, 320p. (In Persian)
21.Norouzi, E., Erfani-Moghadam, J., Fazeli, A. and Khadivi, A. 2017. Morphological variability within and among three species of Ziziphus genus using multivariate analysis. Sci. Hort. 222: 180-186.
22.R Development Core Team. 2014.R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
23.Radosavljević, I., Bogdanović, S., Celep, F., Filipović, M., Satovic, Z., Surina, B. and Liber, Z. 2019. Morphological, genetic and epigenetic aspects of homoploid hybridization between Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia fruticosa Mill. Sci. Rep. 9: 1. 1-13.
24.Raeisi Monfared, A., Moradi, N. and Yavari, A. 2018. Study on chemical compositions of essential oil of some Salvia santolinifolia Boiss. Ecotypes. Iran. J. Hort. Sci. 50: 3. 745-754.
25.Rechinger, K.H. 1982. Flora Iranica (Vol. 152). Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, pp. 427-428.
26.Saadatjou, B., Mohammad Khani, A.R., Saeedi, K. and Sharmardi H.A. 2015. Evaluation of morphological diversity and essential oil content of different species ecotypes Salvia in southwestern Iran. J. App. Cro. Breed. 3: 1. 125-135. (In Persian)
27.Shannon, C.E. and Weaver, W.1963. The Mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
28.Simpson, E.H. 1949. Measurementof diversity. Nature. 163: 688. doi: 10.1038/163688a0.
29.Soltanipoor, M.A. 2005. Ecological Study on 10 species of essential plants of Hormozgan Province. Iran. J. Med. Arom. Plant. 20: 4. 547-560. (In Persian)
30.Talebi, S.M., Yadegari, P., Behzadpour, S. and Matsyura, A. 2019. Infraspecific morphological variations of Salvia limbata in Iran. Acta Bio. Sib. 5: 1. 113-121.
31.Travlos, I.S., Cheimona, N., Roussis,I. and Bilalis, D.J. 2018. Weed-species abundance and diversityindices in relation to tillage systemsand fertilization. Front. Environ. Sci.6. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2018.00011
32.Verma, N. and Shukla, S. 2015. Impact of various factors responsible for fluctuation in plant secondary metabolites. J. Appl. Res. Med. Arom. 2: 4. 105-113.
33.Walker, J.B. and Sytsma, K.J. 2007. Staminal evolution in the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): molecular phylogenetic evidence for multiple origins of staminal level. Ann. Bot. Lond. 100: 375-391.
34.Wang, M., Li, J., Zhang, L., Yang, R.W., Ding, C.B., Zhou, Y.H. and Yin, Z.Q. 2011. Genetic diversity among Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and related species using morphological traits and RAPD markers. J. Med. Plant Res.
5: 13. 2687-2694.
35.Yavari, A.R., Nazeri, V., Sefidkon, F. and Hassani, M.E. 2011. Evaluation of some ecological factors, morphological traits and essential oil productivity of Thymus migricus Klokov & Desj.-Shost. Iranian J. Med. Arom. Plant.48: 2. 228-238. (In Persian)
36.Yavari, A.R., Nazeri, V., Sefidkon, F. and Hassani, M.E. 2011. Study on some ecological factors, morphological traits, ploidy levels and essential oil composition of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak in two natural regions of East Azerbaijan province. Iran. J. Med. Arom. Plant.26: 4. 500-512. (In Persian)
37.Yavari, A., Shokrpour, M., Tabrizi, L. and Hadian, J. 2017. Analysis of morphological variation and general combining ability in half sib families of Echinacea purpurea L. Iran. J. Hort. Sci. 47: 4.617-630. (In Persian)
38.Yousefi, M., Nazeri, V. and Mirza, M. 2014. Study on some ecological characteristics, morphological traits and essential oil yield of Salvia leriifolia Benth. Iranian J. Med. Arom. Plant.29: 1. 157-175. (In Persian)
39.Yousefi Azarkhanian, M., Asghari, A., Ahmadi, J. and Ashraf Jafari, A. 2016. Investigation of morphological variation among some Salvia L. species and ecotypes by multivariate statistical analysis. J. Crop Breed. 8: 20. 133-141. (In Persian)