اثر همزیستی سه نوع قارچ اکتومیکوریز و باکتری کمک کننده همزیست (Bacillus cereus) بر جذب عناصر غذایی و رشد در کاج سیاه (Pinus nigra)

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گیاهان زینتی، گروه باغبانی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت،

2 استاد گروه باغبانی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه باغبانی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

4 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: میکوریزا از رایج ترین و ﻗدیمی ترین ارتباط های همزیستی در سلسله گیاهی است. این قارچ ها از عوامل ضروری در سیستم پایدار خاک و گیاه محسوب می شود که با ریشه بیش از 97 درصد گیاهان همزیستی دارند. امروزه مشخص شده که قارچ های میکوریز به روش‌های مستقیم، مانند بهبود تغذیه گیاه از طریق جذب عناصر غذایی و همچنین افزایش جذب آب توسط گیاه و غیر مستقیم، مانند کاهش تنش های زیستی و غیر زیستی سبب افزایش رشد گیاه میزبان می-گردند. درختان کاج از محبوب ترین درختان در فضای سبز و جنگل ها هستند که دارای همزیستی اجباری با اکتومیکوریزاها می باشند. مطالعات متعددی برای ایجاد اکتومیکوریز در شرایط استریل و همچنین بررسی اثر این سیستم همزیستی روی گیاهان انجام شده است، ولی تاکنون هیچ مطالعه ای که در آن به بررسی همزیستی سه نوع قارچ خوراکی اکتومیکوریز (Cantharellus cibarius, Amanita caesarea, Boletus edulis) و باکتری (Bacillus cereus) با کاج سیاه پرداخته باشند انجام نشده است.
مواد و روش ها: این آزمایش به صورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها عبارت بودند از: شاهد، باکتری باسیلوس سرئوس، قارچ های اکتومیکوریز چنترلا، بولتوس و آمانیتا و تیمارهای ترکیبی (قارچ+باکتری). دانهال های 60 روزه کاج سیاه توسط قارچ و باکتری تلقیح شدند و بعد از 15 ماه بررسی صفات مورد نظر انجام شد. صفات مورد بررسی عبارت بودند از: درصد میکوریزاسیون ریشه، ارتفاع بوته، قطر ساقه، وزن خشک ساقه و ریشه، میزان کلروفیل و درصد جذب عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم و کلسیم.
یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد که درصد میکوریزاسیون بطور معنی داری در سطح احتمال 1 درصد تحت تأثیر تیمارها قرار گرفت. بیشترین (32/61 درصد) و کمترین (14 درصد) درصد میکوریزاسیون به ترتیب توسط بولتوس+باسیلوس و قارچ چنترلا بدست آمد. جذب عناصر پتاسیم، نیتروژن و فسفر، کلروفیل a و کل، ارتفاع بوته و وزن خشک ساقه و ریشه به طور معنی داری تحت تأثیر تیمارها قرار گرفتند؛ درحالی که تفاوت چشمگیری از لحاظ قطر ساقه، جذب کلسیم و کلروفیل b در بین تیمارها مشاهده نشد. تمامی تیمارهای ترکیبی (باکتری+قارچ) به طور قابل ملاحظه ای ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک ساقه، کلروفیل کل و جذب عناصر نیتروژن و پتاسیم را نسبت به شاهد افزایش دادند. همچنین تیمارهای ترکیبی بولتوس+باسیلوس و آمانیتا+باسیلوس تأثیر مثبتی در افزایش جذب فسفر، میزان کلروفیل a و وزن خشک ریشه داشتند. در خصوص تیمارهای جداگانه، نتایج نشان داد که فقط قارچ بولتوس در افزایش وزن خشک ساقه و جذب پتاسیم و فسفر مؤثر بود. در سایر موارد تفاوت معنی داری بین تیمارها و شاهد مشاهده نشد. بیشترین و کمترین مقدار صفات مورد ارزیابی نیز به ترتیب توسط تیمار بولتوس+باسیلوس و شاهد بدست آمد.
نتیجه گیری: یافته های این تحقیق نشان داد که هر سه نوع قارچ اکتومیکوریز خصوصاً قارچ بولتوس با گیاهچه های کاج سیاه، همزیستی داشتند. این همزیستی توسط باکتری کمک کننده همزیستی باسیلوس بهبود یافت و تلقیح کمکی باکتری باسیلوس با قارچ های مورد مطالعه بیشترین تأثیر را در افزایش میکوریزاسیون، جذب عناصر و رشد کاج سیاه داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Ectomycorrhizal fungi symbiosis and mycorrhiza helper bacteria (Bacillus cereus) on nutrient uptake and growth of Black pine (Pinus nigra)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sheno Amini 1
  • Moazzam Hassanpour Asil 2
  • Jamal-Ali Olfati 3
  • Sedigheh Mousanejad 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Professor, Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
4 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Mycorrhiza is one of the most common and oldest symbiotic associations in the plants. These funguses are considered to be essential factors in the soil and plant system which symbiosis with roots of more than 97% of the plants. Nowadays it is known that mycorrhizal fungus increase host plant growth by in direct ways such as improving plant nutrition by absorbing nutrients, as well as increasing water absorption and indirect way such as reducing biologic and non-biologic stress. Pine trees are the most popular trees in the landscape and forests, which have compulsory symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Several studies have been done to development symbiosis of ectomycorrhiza in sterile conditions, as well as to investigate the effect of this system on plants, but so far no studies have been done to investigate the symbiosis of three types of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cantharellus cibarius, Amanita caesarea and Boletus edulis) and bacteria (Bacillus cereus) with black pine.
Materials and methods: This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were included: Control, B. cereus, the ectomycorrhiza funguses of Cantharellus, Boletus and Amanita and combined treatments (bacterial+ fungi). Seedlings were inoculated with fungi and bacteria after 60 days; then, the traits were evaluated after 15 months. The traits were included: root mycorrhization percent, plant height, stem diameter, stem and root dry weight, chlorophyll content and the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium.
Results: Mycorrhization at 1% probability was significantly influenced by applied treatments. The highest (61.32%) and lowest (14%) percentage of mycorrhization respectively were obtained by Boletus+Bacillus and Cantharellus. The uptake of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus elements, Atotal chlorophyll, plant height and root and stem dry weight were significantly affected by treatments; while, there were not observed significant difference between treatments in case of stem diameter, calcium uptake and chlorophyll b. All combination treatments (bacterial+fungi) dramatically increased plant height, stem dry weight, total chlorophyll and the absorption of potassium and nitrogen compared with control. Also the treatments of Boletus+Bacillus and Amanita+Bacillus had positivity effects on increment of phosphorus uptake, Chlorophyll a and root dry weight. In case of individual treatments, the results showed that only Boletus was effective in improving the stem dry weight and potassium and phosphorus uptake. In the case of separate treatments, the results indicated that only Boletus fungus was effective in increasing stem dry weight and potassium and phosphorus absorption. In other case there were no significant difference between control and other treatments. The highest and lowest values of evaluated traits respectively were obtained by Boletus+Bacillus and control.
Conclusion: The results conclusively suggest that all ectomycorrhizal fungus especially Boletus had a symbiosis with P. nigra. This symbiosis was improved by mycorrhiza helper bacteria and co-inoculated of B. cereus with all fungi had more positive effects on increasing of mycorrhization, nutrient uptake and growth of P. nigra.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amanita
  • Boletus
  • Cantharellus
  • chlorophyll
  • Mycorrhization Percentage
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