کمی سازی تغییرات شاخص‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی مرزه رشینگری (Satureja rechingeri Jamzad) در شرایط تنش شوری با استفاده از مدل‌های غیرخطی

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

2 نویسنده مسئول، استادیار گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

پیش‌زمینه و اهداف: مرزه رشینگری (Satureja rechingeri Jamzad) متعلق به تیره Lamiaceae، از گونه‌های انحصاری ایران است که پراکنش گسترده‌ای در جنوب ایران (عمدتاً خوزستان و ایلام) دارد. این گیاه خواص دارویی بسیاری دارد و ترکیب اصلی اسانس آن کارواکرول (48 تا 95%) است. کارواکرول عمدتاً در فعالیت‌های بیولوژیکی و تولید موادی از جمله آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها و آنتی‌اکسیدانت‌ها نقش دارد. تنش خشکی و شوری از عمده‌ترین خطرات برای تولید موفق و عملکرد محصولات زراعی در ایران و جهان هستند. شوری فرایندهای متابولیسمی و فعالیت آنزیم‌ها را تغییر می‌دهد. یکی از تغییرات بیوشیمیایی که در گیاه هنگام رویارویی با محیط شور رخ می‌دهد، افزایش تولید رادیکال‌های آزاد اکسیژن است. درباره تحمل این گیاه به تنش شوری اطلاعات کمی وجود دارد. ازاین‌رو، این مطالعه به‌منظور کمی‌سازی پاسخ‌های مرفوفیزیولوژی و بیوشیمیایی مرزه رشینگری به تنش شوری با استفاده از مدل‌های غیرخطی انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار در شرایط گلخانه طی سال‌های 1396-1395 صورت گرفت. قلمه‌های ریشه‌دار از شرکت دارویی خرمان واقع در خرم‌آباد (لرستان) تهیه و به گلخانه پژوهشی گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران واقع در کرج (البرز) انتقال داده شدند. قلمه‌های ریشه‌دار شده به مدت حدود یک ماه در شرایط مناسب نگه‌داری شده و سپس به گلدان انتقال داده شدند. شش هفته بعد از استقرار کامل، گیاهان در معرض غلظت‌های مختلفی از کلرید سدیم (صفر، 2، 4، 8 و 16 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) قرار گرفتند. پارامترهایی شامل پایداری غشاء، فعالیت مالون‌دی‌آلدهید، سوپراکسیددیسموتاز، آسکوربات پراکسیداز، میزان پرولین، فنول کل، ارتفاع بوته، طول و عرض برگ، قطر ساقه و وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی و میزان و عملکرد اسانس اندازه‌گیری شد و از مدل‌های لجستیک، سیگموئیدی و پیک برای کمی‌سازی این پارامترهای استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها و بحث: اثر تنش شوری بر بیشتر خصوصیات معنی‌دار (به‌جز قطر ساقه و درصد اسانس) بود. با افزایش غلظت نمک NaCl، در گیاهان تحت تنش شوری، نشت غشاء (250%)، میزان پرولین (430%)، کاتالاز (360%)، آسکوربات پراکسیداز (550%)، سوپراکسیددیسموتاز (320%)، فنل کل (350%) و مالون‌دی‌آلدهید (280%) افزایش یافتند. شوری باعث کاهش ارتفاع گیاه (14 درصد)، طول و عرض برگ (21 و 23%)، وزن تر شاخه (35%) و وزن خشک شاخه (15%) و عملکرد اسانس (15%) شد. همچنین تغییرات خصوصیات مرفولوژیکی در شرایط تنش شوری به‌صورت لجستیک و خصوصیات بیوشیمیایی (به‌جز آسکوربات پراکسیداز که به‌صورت پیک بود) به‌صورت سیگموئیدی بودند.
نتیجه‌گیری: به‌طورکلی، مرزه رشینگری تا غلظت 4 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر شوری را تحمل کرد، ولی در شوری‌های بالاتر، وزن تر و خشک و ارتفاع گیاه به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Quantification of changes in morphophysiological and biochemical criteria of Satureja rechingeri Jamzad under salinity stress using nonlinear models

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Alemardan 1
  • Leila Tabrizi 2
  • Majid Shokrpour 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran.
2 Corresponding Author, Assistant Prof., Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background & Aims: Satureja rechingeri Jamzad, a member of the Lamiaceae family, is a species endemic to Iran, which has a wide distribution in southern Iran (mainly Khuzestan and Ilam). This plant has many medicinal properties and the main composition of its essential oil is carvacrol (48 to 95%). Carvacrol is mainly involved in biological activities and used in the production of substances such as antibiotics and antioxidants. Drought and salinity stress are the main limiting factors for successful production and yield of crops in Iran and the world. Salinity alters metabolic processes and the activity of enzymes. One of the biochemical changes that occur in plants when exposed to saline environments is the increase in the production of oxygen free radicals. Little is known about the tolerance of this plant to salinity stress. Therefore, this study was performed to quantify the morphophysiological and biochemical responses of Satureja rechingeri to salinity stress using nonlinear models.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in greenhouse conditions during 2016-2017. Rooted cuttings were prepared from Khorman Pharmaceutical Company located in Khorramabad (Lorestan) and transferred to the research greenhouse for the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, located in Karaj (Alborz). Rooted cuttings were kept under favorable conditions for about a month and then transplanted into pots. Six weeks after full establishment, the plants were exposed to different concentrations of sodium chloride (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 dS / m). Parameters including membrane stability, malondialdehyde level, activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, proline content, total phenol, plant height, leaf length and width, stem diameter, herbal fresh and dry weight, and percentage and yield of essential oil were measured. Logistic, sigmoid, and peak models were used to quantify these parameters.
Findings and Discussion: The effect of salinity stress on most of the parameters was significant (except for stem diameter and essential oil percentage). With increasing NaCl salt concentration, in plants under salinity stress, membrane leakage (250%), proline content (430%), catalase (360%), ascorbate peroxidase (550%), superoxide dismutase (320%), total phenol (350%), and malondialdehyde (280%) increased. Salinity decreased plant height (14%), leaf length and width (21% and 23%), fresh weight of shoot (35%), dry weight of shoot (15%), and essential oil yield (15%). Moreover, changes in morphological characteristics under salinity stress were logistic and in biochemical properties (except those in ascorbate peroxidase, which was peak) were sigmoid.
Conclusion: Satureja rechingeri tolerated salinity up to 4 dS / m, but at higher salinities, herbal fresh and dry weight and plant height significantly reduced.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Medicinal plants
  • Sodium chloride
  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • growth characteristics
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