تاثیر محلول پاشی عناصر روی و فسفر بر صفات مورفولویک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد و کیفیت دانه برنج(Oryza Sativa L.) ارقام هاشمی (محلی) و گیلانه (اصلاح شده)

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران.

2 استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، آمل، ایران

10.22069/jopp.2022.18731.2765

چکیده

سابفه و هدف: پس از نیتروژن، فسفر دومین عنصر پرمصرف محدودکننده رشد و عملکرد و روی مهمترین عنصر کم‌مصرف می‌باشند که اثرات ناشی از کمبود آنها گسترده‌ترین و جدی‌ترین اختلالات تغذیه‌ای را در اراضی شالیزاری جهان ایجاد کرده و یکی از عوامل مهم کاهش عملکرد در گیاه برنج است. پژوهش حاضر به منظور بررسی تاثیر محلول‌پاشی عناصر روی و فسفر بر صفات مورفولویک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد و کیفیت دانه برنج ارقام هاشمی (محلی) و گیلانه (اصلاح شده) انجام شد.
مواد و روشها : آزمایشی مزرعه‌‌ای دو ساله در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو سال زراعی 1396و 1397 در مزرعه پژوهشی مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور –رشت اجرا شد. فاکتور (عامل) های آزمایشی عبارتند از : عامل رقم در دو سطح، عامل روی در سه سطح و عامل فسفر در سه سطح. همچنین تیمارهای این آزمایش شامل : 1- عدم استفاده از کود روی (شاهد)، 2- محلول‌پاشی 5 در هزار روی از منبع سولفات روی 22 درصد در مرحله شروع آبستنی، 3- محلول‌پاشی 5 در هزار روی مرحله شروع آبستنی بهمراه محلول‌پاشی روی در مرحله شروع پرشدن دانه، و 4- عدم استفاده از کود فسفره (شاهد) 5- محلول‌پاشی 5 در هزار فسفر از منبع مونوفسفات پتاسیم آزمایشگاهی در مرحله شروع آبستنی 6- محلول‌پاشی 5 در هزار فسفر مرحله شروع آبستنی و مرحله شروع پر شدن دانه می‌باشند.
نتایج: محلول‌پاشی فسفر از بین خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی اندازه گیری شده تنها بر وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت و محتوای فسفر دانه تاثیر معنی‌دار نداشته است. اثر محلول‌پاشی روی بر بیشتر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی، به‌جزء وزن هزار دانه، شاخص برداشت و محتوای فسفر دانه در سطوح احتمال 1 و 5 درصد معنی‌دار بوده است. محلول‌پاشی با روی و فسفر پنج در هزار مرحله شروع آبستنی و در مرحله رسیدگی دانه به ترتیب باعث افزایش 00/7 و 94/12 درصدی طول خوشه در رقم گیلانه و هاشمی، افزایش 23/35 ، 00/40 درصدی دانه پر،40/6 و 00/35 درصدی دانه پوک نسبت به شاهد، افزایش 00/7 و 10/11 درصدی عملکرد دانه و افزایش 98/25 درصد و 22/19 درصدی زیست توده در ارقام گیلانه و هاشمی شده است. بالاترین میزان پروتئین برنج سفید در تیمار محلول‌پاشی با سولفات روی پنج در هزار مرحله شروع آبستنی و در مرحله رسیدگی دانه بدست آمد که به ترتیب 11 درصد برای رقم هاشمی (37/32 درصد افزایش نسبت به شاهد) و 67/10 درصد برای رقم گیلانه (21/38درصد افزایش نسبت به شاهد) است.
نتیجه‌‌گیری: محلول‌پاشی با سولفات روی پنج در هزار (مرحله شروع آبستنی و در مرحله رسیدگی دانه) برترین تیمار برای صفات کیفی هر دو رقم برنج هاشمی و گیلانه بود. نتایج همچنین بر این نکته تاکید دارد که میزان روی در دانه مهمترین عامل افزایش میزان پروتئین پروتئین در دانه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of zinc and phosphorus foliar application on morphological characters, grain yield and yield components, and grain quality of rice (Hashemi (local) and Guilaneh (improved) cultivar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahram MahmoudSoltani 1
  • Mohammad Taghi Karbalai Agha Molki 2
1 Corresponding Author, Assistant Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension, Rasht, Iran.
2 Assistant Prof., Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension, Amol, Iran. E-mail: mtkarbalai2@yahoo.com
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Phosphorus (P) is the second most important macronutrients and zinc (Zn) is the most important micronutrients that their deficiency is the most important global nutrient disorder in the world paddy fields. The current field study was conducted to explain the effect of Zn and P foliar application on Zn and P content of rice grains and more broadly, grains bio-fortification (Zn and protein content).
Materials and Methods: The three factors factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications in 2017-2018 at research field of the rice research institute of Iran, Rasht. The experimental factors were: varieties at two levels (Hashemi (local) and Guilaneh (improved) varieties), Phosphorous at three levels and Zinc at three levels.Also, the experimental treatments were: 1- no zinc foliar application (control-tap water foliar application), 2- the foliar application of 0.5% zinc sulphate (22%) at the strat of booting, 3- the foliar application of 0.5% zinc sulphate (22%) at the strat of booting and the start of grain filling stages; 4- no P foliar application (control-tap water foliar application), 2- the foliar application of 0.5% P(mono potassium phosphate- laboratory brand) at the strat of booting, 3- the foliar application of 0.5% P at the strat of booting and the start of grain filling stages.
Results: The results of analysis of variance indicated that all the applied treatments and their interactions significantly influenced the morphological, yield and yield components, Zn and protein contents of rice grains. The results revealed that the foliar application of Zn and P the strat of booting and grain filling stages increased panicle length in Hashemi (7%) and Guilaneh (12.94%) cultivars, filled and unfertile grain number of Guilaneh (35.23- 6.40%) and Hashemi (40-35%) cultivars. Also, the foliar application of Zn and P (alone) increased the grain yield about 7 and 11.10%, respectively, and their application the strat of booting and grain filling stages increased biological yield of Hashemi and Guilaneh cultivars about 19.22 and 25.98%, respectively. The highest content of grain Zn and protein content were recorded at by the strat of booting and grain filling stages foliar application of Zn about 27 and 11 present, respectively.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the foliar application of Zn and P at the strat of booting and the start of grain filling stages might enhanced the studied rice cultivars yield and yield component and more broadly the grain quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foliar spray
  • Rice
  • Zinc
  • Phosphorus
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