عنوان مقاله [English]
This study was conducted as a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main This study was conducted as a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plot including 3 residue managements (e.g. removal, burn and incorporate). Sub-plots including 4 fertilizer managements that were: 1. chemical fertilizers of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; 2- Combination of vermin-compost fertilizer + potassium sulfate (before planting), super nitro-plus fertilizer + fertile fertilizer 2 (as seed treated) at planting time, humixcin organic fertilizer (foliar application) and one third of nitrogen fertilizer split; 3- (Combined 2): compost fertilizer + potassium sulfate (before planting), super nitro-plus fertilizer + fertile fertilizer 2 (as seed treated) at planting time and one third of nitrogen fertilizer split; 4- (Combined 3): Farm yard manure + potassium sulfate (before planting), Super nitro-plus fertilizer as seed treated, organic humixcin fertilizer (foliar application) and one third of nitrogen fertilizer split. Yield and yield components was selected and calculated from a surface equivalent to 2 m2. To determine the weight of the first internode (peduncle) from the pollination stage to maturity, the first internode was sampled with an interval of 10 days and placed in the oven to determine the dry weight. The most important indicators for calculating dry matter transfer efficiency were calculated.
Results: Differences between levels of crop residue management, fertilizer management and their interaction in terms of yield components, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, nitrogen and grain protein, remobilization rate, remobilization efficiency, remobilization share, current photosynthesis rate, Current photosynthesis efficiency, share of current photosynthesis, grain formation rate and biological yield were statistically at 1% probability level. The highest grain yield was observed in treatment of removal of residues and chemical fertilizers (4.45 t ha-1) and the removal of residues and fertilizers (1) (4.29 t ha-1) and the lowest was recorded in treatment of incorporated residues and fertilizers (2) (2.33 t ha-1). The highest grain yield formation rate was observed in the treatment of residue and chemical fertilizer removal (24.72 kg ha 1 day-1) and removal of residues and compound fertilizer (1) (23.86 kg ha 1 day-1).The lowest grain yield formation rate was obtained in the treatment of residue and integrated fertilizer (2) (12.85 kg ha 1 day-1). The highest rate, efficiency and contribution of photosynthesis were obtained in the removal of debris and the use of synthetic fertilizer (1) and the lowest was obtained in the incineration of waste and the use of synthetic fertilizer (3).
Conclusion: The results showed that treatments based on intensive agriculture (removal of crop residues and completely chemical management) have produced the highest grain yield. While treatments based on sustainable agriculture (Incorporated of crop residues with organic and biological fertilizers) with the highest percentage of grain protein, in fact have produced the highest product quality. On the other hand, although in Khuzestan province there is water shortage and drought stress in most cropping seasons, but according to the results obtained by incorporated crop residues, chemical fertilizers and integrated fertilizers, can increased plant growth, quality of crop production and reserve moisture in the soil and ultimately the stability of the system.