بررسی تنوع ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان بر اساس عملکرد و صفات مرتبط با عملکرد تحت شرایط تنش بیماری زنگ زرد (Puccinia striiformis)

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات، گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

2 استاد پژوهش، مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

3 نویسنده مسئول، دانشیار دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان و دانشگاه زابل، ایران

4 استادیار گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

5 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

6 استادیار گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: زنگ زرد یا زنگ نواری یکی از مهم‌ترین بیماری‌های گندم در سراسر جهان می‌باشد. این بیماری با تاثیر بر روی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد می‌تواند خسارت بالایی را در گیاه ایجاد کند. همچنین بدلیل ایجاد نوترکیبی بالا در عامل بیماری این بیماری هرساله نژادهای جدیدی در آن به وجود می‌آید که همین موضوع به‌نژادگران را وادار به مطالعه دائم این بیماری و یافتن ژنوتیپ های مقاوم گردانده است.
مواد و روش‌ها: به‌منظور ارزیابی اثر بیماری زنگ زرد بر برخی از ویژگی‌های زراعی ژنوتیپ های گندم نان شامل 297 رقم تجاری و ژنوتیپ بومی ایران، آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای در سال زراعی 1398-1399 در قالب طرح آلفا لاتیس با دو تکرار اجرا شد. پس از کاشت بذرها و آلوده سازی مصنوعی بوته‌ها به بیماری، برخی صفات مهم زراعی شامل عملکرد و صفات مرتبط با آن و همچنین صفات تیپ و درصد آلودگی موردبررسی قرار گرفت.
یافته‌ها: نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که ژنوتیپ های گندم ازلحاظ تمام صفات موردبررسی دارای اختلاف معنی‌داری بودند. ضریب همبستگی مؤثر بین عملکرد تک بوته با تمام صفات مشاهده شد. نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون گام‌به‌گام نشان داد صفات تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن صددانه، عرض دانه، طول دانه، طول سنبله، قطر دانه و عرض سنبله به ترتیب دارای بیشترین ضریب تبیین بودند. براساس نتایج تجزیه علّیت، بالاترین تاثیر مستقیم به ترتیب بین صفات تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن صددانه و عرض دانه با عملکرد دانه مشاهده شد. نتایج تجزیه به عامل‌ها نشان داد که پنج عامل با حدود توجیه 70 درصدی واریانس کل وجود داشت که در میان این عوامل صفات در سه عامل اول دارای بالاترین ضریب تبیین بودند. عامل اول به نام عامل اجزای عملکرد، عامل دوم عامل خصوصیات سنبله و عامل سوم بانام خصوصیات دانه نام‌گذاری شد. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه خوشه‌ای ژنوتیپ ها به سه گروه تفکیک شدند که در گروه اول 53 ژنوتیپ با بالاترین میانگین صفات عملکرد تک بوته، تعداد دانه تک بوته و طول سنبله؛ در گروه دوم 110 ژنوتیپ با بالاترین میانگین صفات ارتفاع گیاه، تراکم سنبله و وزن صددانه و در گروه سوم 129 ژنوتیپ با بالاترین مقادیر میانگین برای بقیه صفات وجود داشت. تعداد 52 ژنوتیپ گندم دارای واکتش مقاومت به پاتوتیپ مورد بررسی در این پژوهش بودند.
نتیجه‌گیری: بررسی ژنوتیپ های گندم در شرایط تنش بیماری زنگ زرد گندم (Puccinia striiformis) بر اساس تجزیه‌وتحلیل‌های آماری و تحلیل‌های چندمتغیره نشان‌دهنده تفاوت معنی‌دار ازنظر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد بود.. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از این پژوهش پیشنهاد می‌شود برای ارزیابی و انتخاب ارقام و ژنوتیپ‌های دارای عملکرد دانه بالاتر، گزینش به کمک صفات مرتبط با عملکرد همچون تعداد دانه در سنبله و تعداد دانه تک بوته انجام شود.. همچنین براساس صفات تیپ و درصد آلودگی می‌توان ژن‌های مقاومت موجود در ژنوتیپ‌های دارای مقاومت حدواسط نسبت به پاتوتیپ مورد بررسی در این پژوهش را شناسایی و از آنها در برنامه‌های اصلاحی آتی برای مقاومت به زنگ زرد گندم استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of diversity of bread wheat genotypes based on yield and yield-related traits under yellow rust disease stress condition (Puccinia striiformis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Afzalifar 1
  • Farzad Afshari 2
  • Leila Fahmideh 3
  • Saleheh Ganjali 4
  • Mohammad Reza Bihamta 5
  • Hadi Alipour 6
1 . Ph.D. Student of Plant Breeding, Dept. of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
3 Corresponding Author, Associate Prof., Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources and University of Zabol, Iran.
4 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
5 Full Professor, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Iran.
6 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objects: Yellow rust is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. This disease can cause high damage to the plant by affecting the yield and yield components. Also, due to the high recombination of the causative agent of this disease, new breeds appear in it every year, which has forced breeders to constantly study this disease and find resistant genotypes.
Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of yellow rust disease on some agronomic characteristics of bread wheat genotypes Includes 297 commercial cultivars and landraces of Iran, a field experiment was conducted in alpha-lattice layout with two replications in the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII) farm, in 1398-1399 crop season. After sowing the seeds and artificially infecting the plants with the disease, some important agronomic traits including yield and related traits as well as infection type and infection percentage were examined.
Results: The results of analysis of variance showed that wheat genotypes have significant differences in terms of all studied traits. An effective correlation coefficient was observed between single plant yield with all traits. The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that the number of grains per spike, 100-kernel weight, grain width, grain length, spike length, grain thickness and spike width have the highest coefficients of determination, respectively. Based on the results of path analysis, the highest direct effect was observed between the number of grains per spike, 100-kernel weight and grain width with grain yield, respectively. The results of factor analysis showed that there were five factors with a justification of about 70% of the total variance, among which the traits had the highest coefficient of explanation in the first three factors. The first factor was called the yield component factor, the second factor was called the spike features factor, and the third factor was called the grain features factor. Based on the results of cluster analysis, genotypes were divided into three groups. In the first group, 53 genotypes with the highest average of single plant yield, number of single plant seeds and spike length; In the second group there were 110 genotypes with the highest mean of plant height, spike density and 100-kernel weight and in the third group there were 129 genotypes with the highest mean values for other traits. A total of 52 wheat genotypes had resistance reaction to pathotype studied in this study.
Conclusion: The study of wheat genotypes under stress conditions of wheat yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) based on statistical analysis and multivariate analysis showed a significant difference in yield and yield components. Therefore, as in previous studies, the disease studied on wheat was recognized as one of the most important diseases affecting wheat yield. To evaluate and select cultivars and genotypes with higher grain yield, selection should be done using yield-related traits such as number of seeds per spike and number of single plant seeds. Also, based on infection type and percentage, resistance genes can be identified intermediate resistance to the studied pathotype in this study and used in future breeding programs for resistance to wheat yellow rust.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Yield components
  • Factor Analysis
  • Cluster analysis
  • Path analysis
  • Correlation Analysis
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