استفاده از ضایعات کشاورزی برای تولید جدایه ایرانی قارچ Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. و ارزیابی عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات دارویی

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد گروه علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

2 استاد گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران.

4 نویسنده مسئول، استادیار علوم باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

5 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

6 دانشیار گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: انتخاب بستر کشت مناسب و هم‌چنین بررسی جایگزینی سایر ضایعات کشاورزی ارزان قیمت به جای تراشه چوب درختان با ارزش یکی از مهم‌ترین نکاتی است که باید در کشت و تولید قارچ‌های دارویی مورد توجه قرار گیرد. انتخاب بستر کشت مناسب قارچ‌ها و غنی‌سازی بستر با مکمل‌های آلی به طور گسترده‌ای تولید اندام بارده و ارزش دارویی قارچ‌ها را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این پژوهش در سالن کشت مجهز به دستگاه‌های کنترل دما، رطوبت و نور در دانشگاه زابل و به صورت فاکتوریل دو عاملی و در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل 10 نوع بسترهای کشت پایه تراشه چوب (خاک اره): درخت راش، تراشه چوب درخت بلوط، تراشه چوب درخت ممرز، تراشه چوب درخت صنوبر، تراشه چوب درخت اکالیپتوس، تراشه چوب درختچه گز، تراشه چوب انگور (ساقه‌های هرس شده)، تراشه چوب ساقه درخت خرما، تراشه چوب برگ درخت خرما و باگاس نیشکر بود. هم‌چنین به عنوان فاکتور دوم به هر کدام از بسترهای اصلی، 10 درصد از ترکیبات آلی نیتروژن‌دار شامل سبوس گندم، سبوس برنج، تفاله پنبه‌دانه و تفاله زیتون اضافه گردید.
یافته‌ها: نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد بیشترین عملکرد به میزان (5/145 گرم)، ماده خشک کل (8/36 گرم)، پروتئین اندام میوه‌ای (15/27 میلی‌گرم در 100 گرم ماده خشک)، خاکستر (97/4 درصد)، نیتروژن (38/4 میلی‌گرم در 100 گرم ماده خشک) و پلی-ساکارید کل (35/14 میلی‌گرم بر گرم ماده خشک) مربوط به بستر کشت ترکیبی تراشه چوب بلوط با سبوس گندم بود. بالاترین میزان آب قارچ (16/85 درصد) مربوط به بستر کشت تراشه چوب اکالیپتوس و بالاترین راندمان بیولوژیکی (71/19 درصد) مربوط به بستر کشت ترکیبی تراشه چوب بلوط با تفاله زیتون بود. بیشترین پتاسیم (299 میلی‌گرم در 100 گرم ماده خشک)، کلسیم (73/11 میلی‌گرم در 100 گرم ماده خشک) و ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی (25/54 درصد) مربوط به بستر کشت تراشه چوب بلوط ثبت شد. هم‌چنین نتایج حاکی از آن بود که در بستر کشت تراشه چوب بلوط کم‌ترین زمان از نظر زمان کامل شدن پنجه‌دوانی (40/29 روز)، کم‌ترین زمان برای پین‌دهی (13/43 روز) و در بستر کشت تراشه چوب درخت ممرز کم‌ترین زمان برای پیش رسی (26/70روز) ثبت شد.
نتیجه گیری: هرچند بستر کشت تراشه چوب بخصوص درخت بلوط به عنوان بستر مناسب برای پرورش قارچ گانودرما آپلاناتوم گزارش شد، اما دسترسی آسان و همچنین هزینه پایین‌تر سایر ضایعات لیگنوسلولزی کشاورزی، سبب شده تا بعنوان جایگزینی مناسب برای آن معرفی گردد. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق استفاده از بسترهای ترکیبی و مکمل‌های آلی در کشت و تولید قارچ‌های دارویی بخصوص گانودرما آپلاناتوم توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The use of agricultural wastes to produce Iranian isolate of Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. and evaluation its performance and some pharmacological properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Akram Esmaeil-zehi 1
  • Mahmoud Solouki 2
  • Behnaz Yousefshahi 3
  • Dariush Ramezan 4
  • Mahdi Pirnia 5
  • Mohammad Mehdi Zarabi 6
1 M.Sc. Student, Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran
2 . Professor, Dept. of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Zabol, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
4 Corresponding Author, Assistant Prof. of Horticulture Science (Physiology and Vegetable Breeding), Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran
5 Associate Prof., Dept. of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran
6 Associate Prof., Dept. of Horticulture Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resourses, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Selection a suitable substrate and also considering the replacement of other inexpensive agro-wastes instead of valuable wood chips is one of the most important points that should be considered in the cultivation and production of medicinal mushrooms. Selecting the appropriate substrate for fungi and enriching the substrate with organic supplements widely affects the production of fruiting bodies and the medicinal value of fungi.
Materials and methods: This research was carried out in a cultivation hall equipped with temperature, humidity and light control devices at Zabol University and conducted as a two-way factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replicates. Experimental treatments included 10 types of wood chip base substrates (sawdust): Beech tree, Oak wood chips, Hornbeam wood chips, Poplar wood chips, Eucalyptus wood chips, Tamarisk wood chips, Vine sawdust (pruned stems), Date palm sawdust, Date palm leaf sawdust and Sugarcane bagasse. Also, as the second factor, 10% of nitrogenous organic supplements including wheat bran, rice bran, cotton meal and olive pomace were added to each of the main substrates.
Results: The results of this study showed that the highest yield (145.5 gr), total dry matter (36.8 gr), fruit body protein (27.15 mg/100g D.M), ash (4.97 %), Nitrogen (4.38 mg/100g D.M) and total polysaccharide (14.35 mg/g D.M) were related to the combined substrate of oak wood chips with wheat bran supplementation. The highest amount of fungal water (85.16%) was related to the substrate of eucalyptus wood chips and the highest biological efficiency (19.71%) was related to the combined substrate of oak wood chips with olive pomace. The highest potassium (299 mg / 100 g dry matter), calcium (11.73 mg / 100 g dry matter) and antioxidant capacity (54.25%) were recorded for oak wood chips substrate. The results also showed that in the oak wood chip substrate the shortest time in terms of spawn running time (29.40 days), the shortest time for pinhead formation time (43.13 days) and in the hornbeam wood chip substrate the lowest time registered for precocity (70/26 days).
Conclusion: Although the wood chip substrate, especially oak chip was reported as a suitable substrate for growing Ganoderma applanatum, but easy access and lower cost of other agricultural and industrial lignocellulosic wastes make them a suitable alternative. According to the results of this study, the use of combined substrates and organic supplements in the cultivation and production of medicinal fungi, especially Ganoderma applanatum, is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant Capacity
  • Biological efficiency
  • dry matter
  • Precocity
  • Total Polysaccharide
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