تاثیر کود زیستی و شیمیایی فسفر توام با مدیریت کاشت بر ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک، فیزیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و موسیلاژ گیاه دارویی اسفرزه (.Plantago ovata Forsk) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری آگرواکولوژی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 نویسنده مسئول، دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

10.22069/jopp.2021.19248.2839

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: با توجه به افزایش جمعیت و نیاز مبرم صنایع داروسازی به گیاهان دارویی به عنوان مواد اولیه تولید دارو و اهمیت مواد مؤثره آنها در صنایع غذایی، آرایشی و بهداشتی باعث شده است که توجه و تحقیق پیرامون این گیاهان از نظر کشت، تولید و مصرف از اهمیت خاصی برخوردار باشند. خشکی به عنوان مهم‌ترین عامل غیرزنده محدود کننده رشد و عملکرد گیاهان، باعث بروز یا تشدید سایر تنش‌ها به‌خصوص تنش کمبود عناصر غذایی در گیاه نیز می‌شود. در شرایط تنش خشکی از تولید متابولیت‌های اولیه کاسته و به تولید متابولیت‌های ثانویه افزوده می‌شود. این پژوهش به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر تنش خشکی، حاصلخیزکننده‌های فسفره توام با روش‌های کاشت بر برخی ویژگی‌های مورفولوژی و فیزیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و موسیلاژ گیاه دارویی اسفرزه انجام گرفت.
مواد و روش‌ها: آزمایش به‌صورت اسپلیت – فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زابل واقع در چاه‌نیمه اجراء گردید. عامل اصلی شامل تنش خشکی در سه سطح، آبیاری پس از 60، 120 و 180 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاسA و عامل فرعی ترکیب روش کاشت بذر (مسطح یا جوی و پشته) و انواع حاصلخیزکننده‌های فسفره شامل 100 درصد کود سوپر فسفات تریپل، کود زیستی فسفات بارور2، تلفیق کود زیستی فسفات بارور2 و 50 درصد کود سوپر فسفات تریپل و بدون کاربرد کود بودند. ویژگی‌های ارتفاع بوته، تعداد برگ در بوته، تعداد پنجه بارور، عملکرد دانه و زیستی، عملکرد موسیلاژ، شاخص سبزینگی، درصد نشت یونی و محتوی نسبی آب برگ مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که بیش‌ترین ارتفاع بوته، تعداد برگ در بوته، تعداد پنجه بارور، عملکرد دانه و زیستی، عملکرد موسیلاژ، شاخص سبزینگی و محتوی نسبی آب برگ از تیمار آبیاری پس از 60 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر حاصل شد، در حالی‌که بیشترین نشت یونی از تیمار آبیاری پس از 180 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر به‌دست آمد. کود زیستی و شیمیایی فسفره به‌‍‌‌صورت تلفیقی منجر به افزایش ویژگی‌های مورد بررسی به استثناء نشت یونی گردید. روش کاشت مسطح سبب افزایش ویژگی‌های مورد ارزیابی شد؛ به غیر از نشت یونی که بیش‌ترین مقادیر آن از روش کاشت جوی و پشته بود. بیش‌ترین عملکرد زیستی (6201 کیلوگرم در هکتار) متعلق به تیمار آبیاری بعد از 60 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر با کاربرد تلفیقی حاصلخیزکننده‌های فسفره در روش کاشت مسطح و بیش‌ترین نشت یونی (48 درصد) مربوط به تیمار آبیاری بعد از 180 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر و بدون کاربرد کود در روش کاشت جوی و پشته بود.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج حاصل،تیمار آبیاری پس از 60 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر و استفاده تلفیقی از حاصلخیز کننده‌های شیمیایی و زیستی فسفره در روش کاشت مسطح می‌توان به تولید بیشتر گیاه دارویی اسفرزه دست یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizers in combination with planting management on morphological and physiological traits, seed yield, and mucilage yield of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) under drought stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mesam Khavari 1
  • Mahmoud Ramroudi 2
  • Ahamad Ghanbri 3
  • Mahedi Dahmardeh 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Agroecology, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Corresponding Author, Associate Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
3 Professor, Dept. of Agronomy, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
4 Associate Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: Because of the growing population and the pharmaceutical industry's urgent need for medicinal plants as raw materials for drug production, as well as the importance of their active ingredients in the food, cosmetics, and health industries, there has been increased interest and research on these plants in terms of cultivation, production, and consumption. Drought, as the most important non-living factor limiting plant growth and yield, causes or worsens other stresses, particularly nutrient deficiency stress in plants. Primary metabolite production decreases and increases with secondary metabolite production under drought stress conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drought stress, phosphorus fertilizers, and planting methods on some morphological and physiological traits, seed and mucilage yield of the medicinal plant isabgol.
Materials and methods: This experiment was carried out as a split-factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications at Zabol University's research farm in Chah Nimeh. The experimental treatments included three drought stresses, irrigation after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from a class A evaporator as the main-factor, and the combination of seed planting method (flat or ridge planting) and types of phosphorus fertilizer (100% chemical phosphorous fertilizer, Phosphate Barvar2, and 50% chemical phosphorous fertilizer + Phosphate Barvar2) as the sub-factor. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of fertile tillers, seed and biological yield, mucilage yield, SPAD index, ionic leakage percentage, and relative leaf water content were the traits studied.
Results: The results showed that the most plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of fertile tillers, seed and biological yield, mucilage yield, SPAD index and relative leaf water content were obtained in the greatest quantity from irrigation treatment after 60 mm of evaporation from the evaporation pan, with the exception of ionic leakage, which was obtained in the greatest quantity from irrigation treatment after 180 mm of evaporation from the evaporation pan. With the exception of ionic leakage, the combined bio-chemical fertilizers of phosphorus increased the studied traits. Also, except for ionic leakage, which had the highest values from the ridge planting method, the flat planting method increased the evaluated traits. The highest biological yield (6201 kg ha-1) is associated with irrigation treatment after 60 mm evaporation from evaporation pan with combined application of phosphorus fertilizers in flat planting method, and the highest ionic leakage (48%) is associated with irrigation treatment after 180 mm evaporation from evaporation pan with no fertilizer application in ridge planting method.
Conclusion: According to the findings, using irrigation treatment after 60 mm of evaporation from the evaporation pan and a combination of chemical and biological phosphorus fertilizers in a flat planting method can result in increased production of the medicinal plant isabgol.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flat cultivation
  • Growing season
  • Ionic leakage
  • Irrigation
  • SPAD index
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